Development of vertebrate jaws involves patterning neural crest-derived mesenchyme cells into distinct subpopulations along the proximal-distal and oral-aboral axes. Although the molecular mechanisms patterning the proximal-distal axis have been well studied, little is known regarding the mechanisms patterning the oral-aboral axis. Using unbiased single-cell RNA-seq analysis followed by in situ analysis of gene expression profiles, we show that Shh and Bmp4 signaling pathways are activated in a complementary pattern along the oral-aboral axis in mouse embryonic mandibular arch. Tissue-specific inactivation of hedgehog signaling in neural crest-derived mandibular mesenchyme led to expansion of BMP signaling activity to throughout the oral-aboral axis of the distal mandibular arch and subsequently duplication of dentary bone in the oral side of the mandible at the expense of tongue formation. Further studies indicate that hedgehog signaling acts through the Foxf1/2 transcription factors to specify the oral fate and pattern the oral-aboral axis of the mandibular mesenchyme.
The single-cell RNA-seq data from this study have been deposited into the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus (NCBI GEO) database (accession number GSE112837). All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
Hedgehog signaling patterns the oral-aboral axis of the mandibular archNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE112837.
- Rulang Jiang
- Rulang Jiang
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals by the National Institutes of Health. The animal use protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (Permit Number IACUC2016-0095).
- Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Institut Pasteur, France
© 2019, Xu et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Successful regeneration requires the coordinated execution of multiple cellular responses to injury. In amputated zebrafish fins, mature osteoblasts dedifferentiate, migrate towards the injury and form proliferative osteogenic blastema cells. We show that osteoblast migration is preceded by cell elongation and alignment along the proximodistal axis, which require actomyosin, but not microtubule turnover. Surprisingly, osteoblast dedifferentiation and migration can be uncoupled. Using pharmacological and genetic interventions, we found that NF-ĸB and retinoic acid signalling regulate dedifferentiation without affecting migration, while the complement system and actomyosin dynamics affect migration but not dedifferentiation. Furthermore, by removing bone at two locations within a fin ray, we established an injury model containing two injury sites. We found that osteoblasts dedifferentiate at and migrate towards both sites, while accumulation of osteogenic progenitor cells and regenerative bone formation only occur at the distal-facing injury. Together, these data indicate that osteoblast dedifferentiation and migration represent generic injury responses that are differentially regulated and can occur independently of each other and of regenerative growth. We conclude that successful fin bone regeneration appears to involve the coordinated execution of generic and regeneration-specific responses of osteoblasts to injury.
Efficient neurotransmission is essential for organism survival and is enhanced by myelination. However, the genes that regulate myelin and myelinating glial cell development have not been fully characterized. Data from our lab and others demonstrates that cd59, which encodes for a small GPI-anchored glycoprotein, is highly expressed in developing zebrafish, rodent, and human oligodendrocytes (OLs) and Schwann cells (SCs), and that patients with CD59 dysfunction develop neurological dysfunction during early childhood. Yet, the function of Cd59 in the developing nervous system is currently undefined. In this study, we demonstrate that cd59 is expressed in a subset of developing SCs. Using cd59 mutant zebrafish, we show that developing SCs proliferate excessively and nerves may have reduced myelin volume, altered myelin ultrastructure, and perturbed node of Ranvier assembly. Finally, we demonstrate that complement activity is elevated in cd59 mutants and that inhibiting inflammation restores SC proliferation, myelin volume, and nodes of Ranvier to wildtype levels. Together, this work identifies Cd59 and developmental inflammation as key players in myelinating glial cell development, highlighting the collaboration between glia and the innate immune system to ensure normal neural development.