Neuron-glia communication contributes to the precise control of synaptic functions. Oligodendrocytes near synapses detect and respond to neuronal activity, but their role in synapse development and plasticity remains largely unexplored. We show that oligodendrocytes modulate neurotransmitter release at presynaptic terminals through secretion of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Oligodendrocyte-derived BDNF functions via presynaptic tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) to ensure fast, reliable neurotransmitter release and auditory transmission in the developing brain. In auditory brainstem slices from Bdnf+/- mice, reduction in endogenous BDNF significantly decreased vesicular glutamate release by reducing the readily releasable pool of glutamate vesicles, without altering presynaptic Ca2+ channel activation or release probability. Using conditional knockout mice, cell-specific ablation of BDNF in oligodendrocytes largely recapitulated this effect, which was recovered by BDNF or TrkB agonist application. This study highlights a novel function for oligodendrocytes in synaptic transmission and their potential role in activity-dependent refinement of presynaptic properties.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Jun Hee Kim
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal procedures were performed in accordance with the guidelines approved by the University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (UTHSCSA) Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee protocols (#140045x).
- Dwight E Bergles, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, United States
© 2019, Jang et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients’ brains contain collagens and are embedded extracellularly. Several collagens have been proposed to influence Aβ aggregate formation, yet their role in clearance is unknown. To investigate the potential role of collagens in forming and clearance of extracellular aggregates in vivo, we created a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain that expresses and secretes human Aβ1-42. This secreted Aβ forms aggregates in two distinct places within the extracellular matrix. In a screen for extracellular human Aβ aggregation regulators, we identified different collagens to ameliorate or potentiate Aβ aggregation. We show that a disintegrin and metalloprotease a disintegrin and metalloprotease 2 (ADM-2), an ortholog of ADAM9, reduces the load of extracellular Aβ aggregates. ADM-2 is required and sufficient to remove the extracellular Aβ aggregates. Thus, we provide in vivo evidence of collagens essential for aggregate formation and metalloprotease participating in extracellular Aβ aggregate removal.
The cerebellar granule cell layer has inspired numerous theoretical models of neural representations that support learned behaviors, beginning with the work of Marr and Albus. In these models, granule cells form a sparse, combinatorial encoding of diverse sensorimotor inputs. Such sparse representations are optimal for learning to discriminate random stimuli. However, recent observations of dense, low-dimensional activity across granule cells have called into question the role of sparse coding in these neurons. Here, we generalize theories of cerebellar learning to determine the optimal granule cell representation for tasks beyond random stimulus discrimination, including continuous input-output transformations as required for smooth motor control. We show that for such tasks, the optimal granule cell representation is substantially denser than predicted by classical theories. Our results provide a general theory of learning in cerebellum-like systems and suggest that optimal cerebellar representations are task-dependent.