The secretion of peptides and proteins is essential for survival and ecological adaptation of bacteria. Dual-functional ATP-binding cassette transporters export antimicrobial or quorum signaling peptides in Gram-positive bacteria. Their substrates contain a leader sequence that is excised by an N-terminal peptidase C39 domain at a double Gly motif. We characterized the protease domain (LahT150) of a transporter from a lanthipeptide biosynthetic operon in Lachnospiraceae and demonstrate that this protease can remove the leader peptide from a diverse set of peptides. The 2.0 Å resolution crystal structure of the protease domain in complex with a covalently bound leader peptide demonstrates the basis for substrate recognition across the entire class of such transporters. The structural data also provide a model for understanding the role of leader peptide recognition in the translocation cycle, and the function of degenerate, non-functional C39-like domains (CLD) in substrate recruitment in toxin exporters in Gram-negative bacteria.
Diffraction data has been deposited at Protein Data Bank under 6MPZ.
- Wilfred A van der Donk
- Gonzalo Jiménez-Osés
- Satish K Nair
- Gonzalo Jiménez-Osés
- Nuria Mazo
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Benjamin F Cravatt, The Scripps Research Institute, United States
© 2019, Bobeica et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (GONFH) is a common refractory joint disease characterized by bone damage and the collapse of femoral head structure. However, the exact pathological mechanisms of GONFH remain unknown. Here, we observed abnormal osteogenesis and adipogenesis associated with decreased β-catenin in the necrotic femoral head of GONFH patients. In vivo and in vitro studies further revealed that glucocorticoid exposure disrupted osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMSCs) by inhibiting β-catenin signaling in glucocorticoid-induced GONFH rats. Col2+ lineage largely contributes to BMSCs and was found an osteogenic commitment in the femoral head through 9 mo of lineage trace. Specific deletion of β-catenin gene (Ctnnb1) in Col2+ cells shifted their commitment from osteoblasts to adipocytes, leading to a full spectrum of disease phenotype of GONFH in adult mice. Overall, we uncover that β-catenin inhibition disrupting the homeostasis of osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation contributes to the development of GONFH and identify an ideal genetic-modified mouse model of GONFH.
Aldehydes, being an integral part of carbon metabolism, energy generation, and signalling pathways, are ingrained in plant physiology. Land plants have developed intricate metabolic pathways which involve production of reactive aldehydes and its detoxification to survive harsh terrestrial environments. Here, we show that physiologically produced aldehydes, i.e., formaldehyde and methylglyoxal in addition to acetaldehyde, generate adducts with aminoacyl-tRNAs, a substrate for protein synthesis. Plants are unique in possessing two distinct chiral proofreading systems, D-aminoacyl-tRNA deacylase1 (DTD1) and DTD2, of bacterial and archaeal origins, respectively. Extensive biochemical analysis revealed that only archaeal DTD2 can remove the stable D-aminoacyl adducts on tRNA thereby shielding archaea and plants from these system-generated aldehydes. Using Arabidopsis as a model system, we have shown that the loss of DTD2 gene renders plants susceptible to these toxic aldehydes as they generate stable alkyl modification on D-aminoacyl-tRNAs, which are recycled only by DTD2. Bioinformatic analysis identifies the expansion of aldehyde metabolising repertoire in land plant ancestors which strongly correlates with the recruitment of archaeal DTD2. Finally, we demonstrate that the overexpression of DTD2 offers better protection against aldehydes than in wild type Arabidopsis highlighting its role as a multi-aldehyde detoxifier that can be explored as a transgenic crop development strategy.