Ceramides are central intermediates of sphingolipid metabolism that also function as potent messengers in stress signaling and apoptosis. Progress in understanding how ceramides execute their biological roles is hampered by a lack of methods to manipulate their cellular levels and metabolic fate with appropriate spatiotemporal precision. Here, we report on clickable, azobenzene-containing ceramides, caCers, as photoswitchable metabolic substrates to exert optical control over sphingolipid production in cells. Combining atomic force microscopy on model bilayers with metabolic tracing studies in cells, we demonstrate that light-induced alterations in the lateral packing of caCers lead to marked differences in their metabolic conversion by sphingomyelin synthase and glucosylceramide synthase. These changes in metabolic rates are instant and reversible over several cycles of photoswitching. Our findings disclose new opportunities to probe the causal roles of ceramides and their metabolic derivatives in a wide array of sphingolipid-dependent cellular processes with the spatiotemporal precision of light.
- Henri G Franquelim
- Petra Schwille
- Dirk Trauner
- James A Frank
- Ben Williams
- Matthijs Kol
- Joost CM Holthuis
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Arun Radhakrishnan, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, United States
© 2019, Kol et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
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