Generating recombinant monoclonal antibodies (R-mAbs) from mAb-producing hybridomas offers numerous advantages that increase the effectiveness, reproducibility, and transparent reporting of research. We report here the generation of a novel resource in the form of a library of recombinant R-mAbs validated for neuroscience research. We cloned immunoglobulin G (IgG) variable domains from cryopreserved hybridoma cells and input them into an integrated pipeline for expression and validation of functional R-mAbs. To improve efficiency over standard protocols, we eliminated aberrant Sp2/0-Ag14 hybridoma-derived variable light transcripts using restriction enzyme treatment. Further, we engineered a plasmid backbone that allows for switching of the IgG subclasses without altering target binding specificity to generate R-mAbs useful in simultaneous multiplex labeling experiments not previously possible. The method was also employed to rescue IgG variable sequences and generate functional R-mAbs from a non-viable cryopreserved hybridoma. All R-mAb sequences and plasmids will be archived and disseminated from open source suppliers.
Plasmids and R-mAb sequences will be made available via Addgene (https://www.addgene.org/James_Trimmer/).
- James S Trimmer
- James S Trimmer
- James S Trimmer
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#20485) of the University of California Davis. The protocol was approved by the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments of the University of California Davis (Animal Welfare Assurance Number A-3433-01). All procedures were performed under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, and every effort was made to minimize suffering.
- Richard Aldrich, The University of Texas at Austin, United States
© 2019, Andrews et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Resolving trajectories of axonal pathways in the primate prefrontal cortex remains crucial to gain insights into higher-order processes of cognition and emotion, which requires a comprehensive map of axonal projections linking demarcated subdivisions of prefrontal cortex and the rest of brain. Here, we report a mesoscale excitatory projectome issued from the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) to the entire macaque brain by using viral-based genetic axonal tracing in tandem with high-throughput serial two-photon tomography, which demonstrated prominent monosynaptic projections to other prefrontal areas, temporal, limbic, and subcortical areas, relatively weak projections to parietal and insular regions but no projections directly to the occipital lobe. In a common 3D space, we quantitatively validated an atlas of diffusion tractography-derived vlPFC connections with correlative green fluorescent protein-labeled axonal tracing, and observed generally good agreement except a major difference in the posterior projections of inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. These findings raise an intriguing question as to how neural information passes along long-range association fiber bundles in macaque brains, and call for the caution of using diffusion tractography to map the wiring diagram of brain circuits.
Background: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) electrode implant trajectories are stereotactically defined using preoperative neuroimaging. To validate the correct trajectory, microelectrode recordings (MER) or local field potential recordings (LFP) can be used to extend neuroanatomical information (defined by magnetic resonance imaging) with neurophysiological activity patterns recorded from micro- and macroelectrodes probing the surgical target site. Currently, these two sources of information (imaging vs. electrophysiology) are analyzed separately, while means to fuse both data streams have not been introduced.
Methods: Here we present a tool that integrates resources from stereotactic planning, neuroimaging, MER and high-resolution atlas data to create a real-time visualization of the implant trajectory. We validate the tool based on a retrospective cohort of DBS patients (𝑁 = 52) offline and present single use cases of the real-time platform. Results: We establish an open-source software tool for multimodal data visualization and analysis during DBS surgery. We show a general correspondence between features derived from neuroimaging and electrophysiological recordings and present examples that demonstrate the functionality of the tool.
Conclusions: This novel software platform for multimodal data visualization and analysis bears translational potential to improve accuracy of DBS surgery. The toolbox is made openly available and is extendable to integrate with additional software packages.
Funding: Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft (410169619, 424778381), Deutsches Zentrum für Luftund Raumfahrt (DynaSti), National Institutes of Health (2R01 MH113929), Foundation for OCD Research (FFOR).