Multiciliated cells (MCC) contain hundreds of motile cilia used to propel fluid over their surface. To template these cilia, each MCC produces between 100-600 centrioles by a process termed centriole amplification. Yet, how MCC regulate the precise number of centrioles and cilia remains unknown. Airway progenitor cells contain two parental centrioles (PC) and form structures called deuterosomes that nucleate centrioles during amplification. Using an ex vivo airway culture model, we show that ablation of PC does not perturb deuterosome formation and centriole amplification. In contrast, loss of PC caused an increase in deuterosome and centriole abundance, highlighting the presence of a compensatory mechanism. Quantification of centriole abundance in vitro and in vivo identified a linear relationship between surface area and centriole number. By manipulating cell size, we discovered that centriole number scales with surface area. Our results demonstrate that a cell-intrinsic surface area-dependent mechanism controls centriole and cilia abundance in multiciliated cells.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript
- Steven L Brody
- Moe R Mahjoub
- Moe R Mahjoub
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. Moreover, the experiments were performed following approved protocols that are compliant with guidelines of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Washington University (approval # 20180237) . Mice were euthanized using carbon dioxide inhalation followed by cervical dislocation, and every effort was made to minimize suffering and distress.
- Jeremy F Reiter, University of California, San Francisco, United States
© 2019, Nanjundappa et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Profilin-1 (PFN1) is a cytoskeletal protein that regulates the dynamics of actin and microtubule assembly. Thus, PFN1 is essential for the normal division, motility, and morphology of cells. Unfortunately, conventional fusion and direct labeling strategies compromise different facets of PFN1 function. As a consequence, the only methods used to determine known PFN1 functions have been indirect and often deduced in cell-free biochemical assays. We engineered and characterized two genetically encoded versions of tagged PFN1 that behave identical to each other and the tag-free protein. In biochemical assays purified proteins bind to phosphoinositide lipids, catalyze nucleotide exchange on actin monomers, stimulate formin-mediated actin filament assembly, and bound tubulin dimers (kD = 1.89 µM) to impact microtubule dynamics. In PFN1-deficient mammalian cells, Halo-PFN1 or mApple-PFN1 (mAp-PEN1) restored morphological and cytoskeletal functions. Titrations of self-labeling Halo-ligands were used to visualize molecules of PFN1. This approach combined with specific function-disrupting point-mutants (Y6D and R88E) revealed PFN1 bound to microtubules in live cells. Cells expressing the ALS-associated G118V disease variant did not associate with actin filaments or microtubules. Thus, these tagged PFN1s are reliable tools for studying the dynamic interactions of PFN1 with actin or microtubules in vitro as well as in important cell processes or disease-states.
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