After Salmonella is phagocytosed, it resides in an acidic vacuole. Its cytoplasm acidifies to pH 5.6; acidification activates pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). SPI-2 encodes a type three secretion system whose effectors modify the vacuole, driving endosomal tubulation. Using super-resolution imaging in single bacterial cells, we show that low pH induces expression of the SPI-2 SsrA/B signaling system. Single particle tracking, atomic force microscopy, and single molecule unzipping assays identified pH-dependent stimulation of DNA binding by SsrB. A so-called phosphomimetic form (D56E) was unable to bind to DNA in live cells. Acid-dependent DNA binding was not intrinsic to regulators, as PhoP and OmpR binding was not pH-sensitive. The low level of SPI-2 injectisomes observed in single cells is not due to fluctuating SsrB levels. This work highlights the surprising role that acid pH plays in virulence and intracellular lifestyles of Salmonella; modifying acid survival pathways represents a target for inhibiting Salmonella.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for all figures
- Linda J Kenney
- Linda J Kenney
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Sophie Helaine, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
© 2019, Liew et al.
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