We have used misfolded prion protein (PrP*) as a model to investigate how mammalian cells recognize and degrade misfolded GPI-anchored proteins. While most misfolded membrane proteins are degraded by proteasomes, misfolded GPI-anchored proteins are primarily degraded in lysosomes. Quantitative flow cytometry analysis showed that at least 85% of PrP* molecules transiently access the plasma membrane en route to lysosomes. Unexpectedly, time-resolved quantitative proteomics revealed a remarkably invariant PrP* interactome during its trafficking from the ER to lysosomes. Hence, PrP* arrives at the plasma membrane in complex with ER-derived chaperones and cargo receptors. These interaction partners were critical for rapid endocytosis because a GPI-anchored protein induced to misfold at the cell surface was not recognized effectively for degradation. Thus, resident ER factors have post-ER itineraries that not only shield misfolded GPI-anchored proteins during their trafficking, but also provide a quality control cue at the cell surface for endocytic routing to lysosomes.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data for Fig. 5E has been provided as a figure supplement.
- Ramanujan S Hegde
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Maya Schuldiner, Weizmann Institute, Israel
© 2019, Zavodszky & Hegde
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Dynein harnesses ATP hydrolysis to move cargo on microtubules in multiple biological contexts. Dynein meets a unique challenge in meiosis by moving chromosomes tethered to the nuclear envelope to facilitate homolog pairing essential for gametogenesis. Though processive dynein motility requires binding to an activating adaptor, the identity of the activating adaptor required for dynein to move meiotic chromosomes is unknown. We show that the meiosis-specific nuclear-envelope protein KASH5 is a dynein activating adaptor: KASH5 directly binds dynein using a mechanism conserved among activating adaptors and converts dynein into a processive motor. We map the dynein-binding surface of KASH5, identifying mutations that abrogate dynein binding in vitro and disrupt recruitment of the dynein machinery to the nuclear envelope in cultured cells and mouse spermatocytes in vivo. Our study identifies KASH5 as the first transmembrane dynein activating adaptor and provides molecular insights into how it activates dynein during meiosis.
Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) are key phosphoinositides that determine the identity of the plasma membrane (PM) and regulate numerous key biological events there. To date, mechanisms regulating the homeostasis and dynamic turnover of PM PI4P and PIP2 in response to various physiological conditions and stresses remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we report that hypoxia in Drosophila induces acute and reversible depletion of PM PI4P and PIP2 that severely disrupts the electrostatic PM targeting of multiple polybasic polarity proteins. Genetically encoded ATP sensors confirmed that hypoxia induces acute and reversible reduction of cellular ATP levels which showed a strong real-time correlation with the levels of PM PI4P and PIP2 in cultured cells. By combining genetic manipulations with quantitative imaging assays we showed that PI4KIIIα, as well as Rbo/EFR3 and TTC7 that are essential for targeting PI4KIIIα to PM, are required for maintaining the homeostasis and dynamic turnover of PM PI4P and PIP2 under normoxia and hypoxia. Our results revealed that in cells challenged by energetic stresses triggered by hypoxia, ATP inhibition and possibly ischemia, dramatic turnover of PM PI4P and PIP2 could have profound impact on many cellular processes including electrostatic PM targeting of numerous polybasic proteins.