Immune progenitor cells differentiate in bone marrow (BM) and then migrate to tissues. HIV-1 infects multiple BM cell types, but virus dissemination within BM has been poorly understood. We used light microscopy and electron tomography to elucidate mechanisms of HIV-1 dissemination within BM of HIV-1–infected BM/thymus/liver (BLT) mice. Tissue clearing combined with confocal and light sheet fluorescence microscopy revealed distinct populations of HIV-1 p24-producing cells in BM early after infection, and quantification of these populations identified macrophages as the principal subset of virus-producing cells in BM over time. Electron tomography demonstrated three modes of HIV-1 dissemination in BM: (i) semi-synchronous budding from T-cell and macrophage membranes, (ii) mature virus association with virus-producing T-cell uropods contacting putative target cells, and (iii) macrophages engulfing HIV-1–producing T-cells and producing virus within enclosed intracellular compartments that fused to invaginations with access to the extracellular space. These results illustrate mechanisms by which the specialized environment of the BM can promote virus spread locally and to distant lymphoid tissues.
- Dong Sung An
- Dong Sung An
- Pamela J Bjorkman
- Pamela J Bjorkman
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: Animals were maintained at the UCLA CFAR Humanized Mouse Core laboratory in accordance with a protocol approved by the UCLA Animal Research Committee. Experiments conformed to all relevant regulatory standards.(UCLA ARC # 2007-092-41A).
- Julie Overbaugh, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, United States
© 2019, Ladinsky et al.
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A large number of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) integrase (IN) alterations, referred to as class II substitutions, exhibit pleiotropic effects during virus replication. However, the underlying mechanism for the class II phenotype is not known. Here we demonstrate that all tested class II IN substitutions compromised IN-RNA binding in virions by one of the three distinct mechanisms: (i) markedly reducing IN levels thus precluding the formation of IN complexes with viral RNA; (ii) adversely affecting functional IN multimerization and consequently impairing IN binding to viral RNA; and (iii) directly compromising IN-RNA interactions without substantially affecting IN levels or functional IN multimerization. Inhibition of IN-RNA interactions resulted in the mislocalization of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes outside the capsid lattice, which led to premature degradation of the viral genome and IN in target cells. Collectively, our studies uncover causal mechanisms for the class II phenotype and highlight an essential role of IN-RNA interactions for accurate virion maturation.
Interactions between viral RNA and the integrase enzyme are required for HIV-1 particles to become infectious, a process that can be disrupted through multiple mechanisms.