(A) Combined phylogeny based on published studies from: Katsumura et al., 2019, Parenti, 2008; Magtoon, 2010; Mokodongan and Yamahira, 2015; Takehana et al., 2005. Sex determination systems and linkage groups with sex determination (SD) genes are given in the gray and blue columns, respectively (based on Matsuda and Sakaizumi, 2016 and Myosho et al., 2015). Species defined as miniaturized (following Parenti, 2008) are marked with black/white fish. Detailed distribution maps are provided for the O. latipes species complex and for the celebensis species group. Divergence times in the tree are based on: 1Takehana et al., 2003; 2aKatsumura et al., 2019: scenario III; 2bKatsumura et al., 2019: scenario IV; 3Mokodongan and Yamahira, 2015; 4Hughes et al., 2018. (B) Total number of described species from the first description of a ricefish in 1822 (Hamilton, 1822) until today (red line) in relation to described Sulawesi endemics (gray bars). The high number of newly described species in recent years especially on Sulawesi points towards a largely underexplored ricefish diversity. (C) Diversity in coloration and shapes of male Oryzias. From left to right and top to bottom: O. sarasinorum*, O. woworae§, O. eversi*, O. wolasi*, O. nigrimas*, O. dancena§, O. minutillus§, O. mekongensis§ (Photos were taken by A Wagnitz* and J Geck§).