Responses in human V1 to different images expressed as percent signal change above baseline. (A) The images were identical to those used in a prior fMRI study, with a few additions, and are grouped into several stimulus categories: SPACE (1 to 38), ORIENTATION (39 to 46), CONTRAST (47 to 68), SPARSITY (69 to 78), COHERENCE (79 to 86). Larger versions of the stimuli are shown in Figure 2—figure supplement 1–5. (B) The fMRI BOLD response in one V1 voxel whose pRF location is matched to the electrode shown in C and D (replotted from Kay et al., 2013b). (C) The ECoG broadband response for all 86 images from a single electrode (Figure 1A, left). (D) The ECoG narrowband gamma response for all 86 images, recorded in the same electrode. (E) Broadband (top) and narrowband (bottom) gamma responses to 86 stimuli averaged across the 15 electrodes in V1-V3. Insets (right) show a zoomed-in view of how the responses vary with four contrast levels and different numbers of component gratings: 1, ‘grating’, 2 ‘plaid’, or 16 ‘circular’. Within each type of pattern, the four bars are responses to stimuli with increasing stimulus contrast. In panels C-D, blue dots indicate significant responses (p<0.05 by bootstrap). In panels B-D, error bars represent the 68% range by bootstrapping across trials. In panel E, error bars represent the 68% range by bootstrapping across electrodes. Code to reproduce this figure can be found on GitHub (Hermes, 2019).