The figure shows the (A) relative fitness, (B) relative resistance level and (C) Relative Hoechst probe accumulation (a proxy of membrane permeability) in the doxycycline-resistant T0 and the corresponding T60 strain harboring a compensatory mutation in the marR promoter region (marR*). Additionally, marR* was introduced into the wild-type and T0 genetic backgrounds as well, yielding WT + marR* and T0 + marR* strains, respectively. (A) Fitness was measured as the area under the growth curve in an antibiotic-free medium, and was normalized to wild-type fitness. Boxplots show the median, first and third quartiles, with whiskers showing the 5th and 95th percentiles (2 biological and five technical replicates per each genotype). We observed a significant variation in relative fitness across the strains (Tukey’s post-hoc multiple comparison tests, * indicates p<0.05). Source file is available as Figure 5—source data 1. (B) Resistance level of all five strains against six antibiotics. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was measured by the standard E-test assay, and was normalized to that of the wild-type strain. Only the T0 strain can be considered resistant to each antibiotic tested according to the CLSI resistance break-point cut-off. Source file is available as Figure 5—source data 1. (C) Membrane permeability across five strains. Membrane permeability was estimated by measuring the intracellular accumulation of a fluorescent probe (Hoechst 33342) in eight biological replicates per each strain or condition. Intracellular accumulation of the probe in the corresponding strains was normalized to that of the wild-type strain. Wild-type cells treated with a protonophore chemical agent (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, CCCP) served as a positive control, displaying an 88% larger membrane permeability value compared to that of the non-treated wild-type strain. T0 showed an exceptionally low level of Hoechst-dye accumulation compared to all other strains studied, while T0 + marR* displayed a 166% larger membrane permeability value compared to that of the T0 strain (Tukey’s post-hoc multiple comparison tests: **** indicates p<0.0001). Boxplots show the median, first and third quartiles, with whiskers showing the 5th and 95th percentiles. Source file is available as Figure 5—source data 1.