Inhibition plays a powerful role in regulating network excitation and plasticity; however, the activity of defined interneuron types during spatial exploration remain poorly understood. Using two-photon calcium imaging, we recorded hippocampal CA1 somatostatin- and parvalbumin-expressing interneurons as mice performed a goal-directed spatial navigation task in new visual virtual reality (VR) contexts. Activity in both interneuron classes was strongly suppressed but recovered as animals learned to adapt the previously learned task to the new spatial context. Surprisingly, although there was a range of activity suppression across the population, individual somatostatin-expressing interneurons showed consistent levels of activity modulation across exposure to multiple novel environments, suggesting context-independent, stable network roles during spatial exploration. This work reveals population-level temporally dynamic interneuron activity in new environments, within which each interneuron shows stable and consistent activity modulation.
Source data are available at Dryad digital repository under the DOI 10.5061/dryad.f83kt85. Code to analyse the data has been deposited to GitHub at https://github.com/Han-Lab-WUSM/MA-scripts (commit 54efc13).
Data from: Structured Inhibitory Activity Dynamics During LearningDryad Digital Repository, 10.5061/dryad.f83kt85.
- Edward B Han
- Edward B Han
- Moises Arriaga
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols of Washington University (Animal Welfare Assurance # A-3381-01). The protocol was approved by the Washington University School of Medicine IACUC (#20170230). All surgery was performed under isofluorane anesthesia, and every effort was made to minimize suffering.
- Helen Scharfman, New York University Langone Medical Center, United States
© 2019, Arriaga & Han
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are trimeric proton-gated sodium channels. Recent work has shown that these channels play a role in necroptosis following prolonged acidic exposure like occurs in stroke. The C-terminus of ASIC1a is thought to mediate necroptotic cell death through interaction with receptor interacting serine threonine kinase 1 (RIPK1). This interaction is hypothesized to be inhibited at rest via an interaction between the C- and N-termini which blocks the RIPK1 binding site. Here, we use two transition metal ion FRET methods to investigate the conformational dynamics of the termini at neutral and acidic pH. We do not find evidence that the termini are close enough to be bound while the channel is at rest and find that the termini may modestly move closer together during acidification. At rest, the N-terminus adopts a conformation parallel to the membrane about 10 Å away. The distal end of the C-terminus may also spend time close to the membrane at rest. After acidification, the proximal portion of the N-terminus moves marginally closer to the membrane whereas the distal portion of the C-terminus swings away from the membrane. Together these data suggest that a new hypothesis for RIPK1 binding during stroke is needed.
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