Epithelial homeostasis and regeneration require a pool of quiescent cells. How the quiescent cells are established and maintained is poorly understood. Here we report that Trpv6, a cation channel responsible for epithelial Ca2+ absorption, functions as a key regulator of cellular quiescence. Genetic deletion and pharmacological blockade of Trpv6 promoted zebrafish epithelial cells to exit from quiescence and re-enter the cell cycle. Reintroducing Trpv6, but not its channel dead mutant, restored the quiescent state. Ca2+ imaging showed that Trpv6 is constitutively open in vivo. Mechanistically, Trpv6-mediated Ca2+ influx maintained the quiescent state by suppressing insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-mediated Akt-Tor and Erk signaling. In zebrafish epithelia and human colon carcinoma cells, Trpv6/TRPV6 elevated intracellular Ca2+ levels and activated PP2A, which down-regulated IGF signaling and promoted the quiescent state. Our findings suggest that Trpv6 mediates constitutive Ca2+ influx into epithelial cells to continuously suppress growth factor signaling and maintain the quiescent state.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Cunming Duan
- Cunming Duan
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All experiments were conducted in accordance with the protocol approved by the University of Michigan Institutional Committee on the Use and Care of Animals (Protocol # PRO00008801).
- Rosemary O’Connor
© 2019, Xin et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The organization of neural circuits determines nervous system function. Variability can arise during neural circuit development (e.g. neurite morphology, axon/dendrite position). To ensure robust nervous system function, mechanisms must exist to accommodate variation in neurite positioning during circuit formation. Previously, we developed a model system in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord to conditionally induce positional variability of a proprioceptive sensory axon terminal, and used this model to show that when we altered the presynaptic position of the sensory neuron, its major postsynaptic interneuron partner modified its dendritic arbor to match the presynaptic contact, resulting in functional synaptic input (Sales et al., 2019). Here, we investigate the cellular mechanisms by which the interneuron dendrites detect and match variation in presynaptic partner location and input strength. We manipulate the presynaptic sensory neuron by (a) ablation; (b) silencing or activation; or (c) altering its location in the neuropil. From these experiments we conclude that there are two opposing mechanisms used to establish functional connectivity in the face of presynaptic variability: presynaptic contact stimulates dendrite outgrowth locally, whereas presynaptic activity inhibits postsynaptic dendrite outgrowth globally. These mechanisms are only active during an early larval critical period for structural plasticity. Collectively, our data provide new insights into dendrite development, identifying mechanisms that allow dendrites to flexibly respond to developmental variability in presynaptic location and input strength.
How cellular metabolic state impacts cellular programs is a fundamental, unresolved question. Here we investigated how glycolytic flux impacts embryonic development, using presomitic mesoderm (PSM) patterning as the experimental model. First, we identified fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) as an in vivo sentinel metabolite that mirrors glycolytic flux within PSM cells of post-implantation mouse embryos. We found that medium-supplementation with FBP, but not with other glycolytic metabolites, such as fructose 6-phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate, impaired mesoderm segmentation. To genetically manipulate glycolytic flux and FBP levels, we generated a mouse model enabling the conditional overexpression of dominant active, cytoplasmic PFKFB3 (cytoPFKFB3). Overexpression of cytoPFKFB3 indeed led to increased glycolytic flux/FBP levels and caused an impairment of mesoderm segmentation, paralleled by the downregulation of Wnt-signaling, reminiscent of the effects seen upon FBP-supplementation. To probe for mechanisms underlying glycolytic flux-signaling, we performed subcellular proteome analysis and revealed that cytoPFKFB3 overexpression altered subcellular localization of certain proteins, including glycolytic enzymes, in PSM cells. Specifically, we revealed that FBP supplementation caused depletion of Pfkl and Aldoa from the nuclear-soluble fraction. Combined, we propose that FBP functions as a flux-signaling metabolite connecting glycolysis and PSM patterning, potentially through modulating subcellular protein localization.