From top to bottom, the rows depict the surfaces with matte reflectance, rough gloss, and smooth gloss. From left to right, the columns depict the conditions with strong background (BG) blur, weak background blur, no blur, weak foreground (FG) blur, and strong foreground blur. Perceived focus and gloss were measured for all fifteen stimuli. Perceived 3D shape was measured horizontally across the prominent vertical ridge in the six stimuli outlined in red. The probe points where shape measurements were taken are shown as red dots in the central stimulus.