(a) MinD and MinE self-organize to form evenly spaced travelling waves when reconstituted on flat lipid bilayers. (b) The minimal MinE peptide capable of ATPase stimulation is MinE(13-31); it does not facilitate pattern formation. (c) The fragments MinE(1-31) and MinE(2-31)-sfGFP contain the membrane-targeting sequence (MTS) in addition to the ATPase stimulation domain. Substituting MinE with these constructs leads to pattern formation; see Figure 2—video 1–3. (d) Fusing the ATPase stimulation domain MinE(13-31) with dimerization domains (we tested Fos, Jun, or GCN-4) facilitates pattern formation in the absence of the MTS. (e) Combining membrane targeting and dimerization in a single construct produces quasi-stationary patterns. (Concentrations and proteins used: (a) 1 μM MinD, 6 μM MinE-His; (b) 1.2 μM MinD, 50 nM MinE(13-31); (c) 1.2 μM MinD, 50 nM MinE(1-31); scalebars = 300 μM; (d) 1 μM MinD, 100 nM MinE(13-31)-Fos; (e) 1.2 μM MinD, 100 nM MinE(1-31)-GCN4. In all assays, MinD is 70 % doped with 30 % Alexa647-KCK-MinD).