(A) State transition structure of the task. (B) Trial structure. At the beginning of each trial, a stakes cue signaled the stakes condition of the current trial (low-stakes trial vs. high-stakes trials). Participants started in one of two first-stage states where they selected one spaceship. They then transitioned to a planet (second stage) where they received a certain amount of space treasure. Space treasure was converted into points depending on the stakes condition. (C) In stable-transitions blocks, spaceships maintained their destination planets throughout a block of 80 trials. In variable-transitions blocks, every 6 to 14 trials, one pair of spaceships swapped their destination planets.