Identifying neurons that have functional opioid receptors is fundamental for the understanding of the cellular, synaptic and systems actions of opioids. Current techniques are limited to post hoc analyses of fixed tissues. Here we developed a fluorescent probe, naltrexamine-acylimidazole (NAI), to label opioid receptors based on a chemical approach termed 'traceless affinity labeling'. In this approach, a high affinity antagonist naltrexamine is used as the guide molecule for a transferring reaction of acylimidazole at the receptor. This reaction generates a fluorescent dye covalently linked to the receptor while naltrexamine is liberated and leaves the binding site. The labeling induced by this reagent allowed visualization of opioid-sensitive neurons in rat and mouse brains without loss of function of the fluorescently labeled receptors. The ability to locate endogenous receptors in living tissues will aid considerably in establishing the distribution and physiological role of opioid receptors in the CNS of wild type animals.
- John T Williams
- John T Williams
- William Birdsong
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal uses were conducted in accordance with the National Institutes of Health guidelines and with approval from the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) protocol #IP00000160 of the Oregon Health & Science University. Rats and mice were anesthetized with isofluorane before euthanized with minimal suffering.
- Peggy Mason, University of Chicago, United States
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
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Recent studies in mice demonstrate that a subset of neurons in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) that express galanin play crucial roles in regulating parental behavior in both sexes. However, little information is available on the function of galanin in social behaviors in other species. Here, we report that, in medaka, a subset of MPOA galanin neurons occurred nearly exclusively in males, resulting from testicular androgen stimulation. Galanin-deficient medaka showed a greatly reduced incidence of male–male aggressive chases. Furthermore, while treatment of female medaka with androgen induced male-typical aggressive acts, galanin deficiency in these females attenuated the effect of androgen on chases. Given their male-biased and androgen-dependent nature, the subset of MPOA galanin neurons most likely mediate androgen-dependent male–male chases. Histological studies further suggested that variability in the projection targets of the MPOA galanin neurons may account for the species-dependent functional differences in these evolutionarily conserved neural substrates.
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