Transport of fluids, molecules, nutrients or nanoparticles through coral tissues are poorly documented. Here, we followed the flow of various tracers from the external seawater to within the cells of all tissues in living animals. After entering the general coelenteric cavity, we show that nanoparticles disperse throughout the tissues via the paracellular pathway. Then, the ubiquitous entry gate to within the cells' cytoplasm is macropinocytosis. Most cells form large vesicles of 350-600 nm in diameter at their apical side, continuously internalizing their surrounding medium. Macropinocytosis was confirmed using specific inhibitors of PI3K and actin polymerization. Nanoparticle internalization dynamics is size dependent and differs between tissues. Furthermore, we reveal that macropinocytosis is likely a major endocytic pathway in other anthozoan species. The fact that nearly all cells of an animal are continuously soaking in the environment challenges many aspects of the classical physiology viewpoints acquired from the study of bilaterians.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Philippe Ganot
- Eric Tambutté
- Natacha Caminiti-Segonds
- Gaëlle Toullec
- Denis Allemand
- Sylvie Tambutté
This work was supported by the Centre Scientifique de Monaco research program, funded by the Government of the Principality of Monaco.
- María Isabel Geli, Institut de Biología Molecular de Barcelona (IBMB), Spain
© 2020, Ganot et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
As cells migrate and experience forces from their surroundings, they constantly undergo mechanical deformations which reshape their plasma membrane (PM). To maintain homeostasis, cells need to detect and restore such changes, not only in terms of overall PM area and tension as previously described, but also in terms of local, nano-scale topography. Here we describe a novel phenomenon, by which cells sense and restore mechanically induced PM nano-scale deformations. We show that cell stretch and subsequent compression reshape the PM in a way that generates local membrane evaginations in the 100 nm scale. These evaginations are recognized by I-BAR proteins, which triggers a burst of actin polymerization mediated by Rac1 and Arp2/3. The actin polymerization burst subsequently re-flattens the evagination, completing the mechanochemical feedback loop. Our results demonstrate a new mechanosensing mechanism for PM shape homeostasis, with potential applicability in different physiological scenarios.
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with adverse obstetric and postnatal metabolic health outcomes, but the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the toxicological pathways by which PM2.5 damaged placental trophoblasts in vivo and in vitro. We confirmed that PM2.5 induced adverse gestational outcomes such as increased fetal mortality rates, decreased fetal number and weight, damaged placental structure, and increased apoptosis of trophoblasts. Additionally, PM2.5 induced dysfunction of the trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo, including in its proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, migration and angiogenesis. Moreover, we comprehensively analyzed the transcriptional landscape of HTR8/SVneo cells exposed to PM2.5 through RNA-Seq and observed that PM2.5 triggered overexpression of pathways involved in oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptosis to damage HTR8/SVneo cell biological functions through CYP1A1. Mechanistically, PM2.5 stimulated KLF9, a transcription factor identified as binding to CYP1A1 promoter region, which further modulated the CYP1A1-driven downstream phenotypes. Together, this study demonstrated that the KLF9/CYP1A1 axis played a crucial role in the toxic progression of PM2.5 induced adverse pregnancy outcomes, suggesting adverse effects of environmental pollution on pregnant females and putative targeted therapeutic strategies.