(A) Heatmap analysis of metabolomics data. Abbreviation: Isoleucine/Leucine (Ile/Leu), Methionine (Met), Tyrosine (Tyr), Isovaleryl Carnitine (C5), Tryptophan (Trp), Phenylalanine (Phe), Valine (Val), Glutaryl-L-Carnitine (C5-DC), Arginine (Arg), Butyryl Carnitine (C4), Hydroxyvaleryl-L-carnitine/Methylmalonyl L-carnitine (C5-OH/C3-DC), Ornithine (Orn), alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha KG), Histidine (His), Alanine (Ala), Glutamic acid (Glu), Octadecanoyl carnitine (C18:1), Octenoyl-L-carnitine/Hexenoyl-L-carnitine (C8:1-OH/C6:1-DC), Acetyl carnitine (C2), Fumaryl-L-carnitine/Hydroxyhexanoyl L-carnitine (C4-DC/C6-OH), Propionyl carnitine (C3), Aspartate (Asp), Glycine (Gly), Proline (Pro), Serine (Ser). Color key represents the scaled abundance of a given metabolite, where the mean abundance of a given metabolite across the entire dataset was calculated (centering) and all the samples values were standardized to z-score (scaled by the standard deviation). For example, the scaled abundance of Ser for D12 GRU102 + met 2 was approximately 3 times the standard deviation higher from the mean abundance of Ser level across the entire dataset. (B) Principal component analysis (PCA) of cluster one metabolites. (C) Levels of cluster one metabolites in D4 GRU101 and D4 GRU102 (unpaired t-test, p<0.05, *; p<0.005, **; n = 3 repeats per condition with approximately 3000 animals per repeat collected in three independent cohorts). (D) Levels of cluster one metabolites in D4 GRU102, D12 GRU102 and D12 GRU102 + Metformin (unpaired t-test, p<0.05, *; p<0.005, **; p<0.001, ***; n = 3 repeats per condition with approximately 3000 animals per repeat collected in three independent cohorts).