The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays an important role in dendritic translation and in learning and memory. We previously showed that heavy alcohol use activates mTORC1 in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of rodents (1). Here, we set out to determine the consequences of alcohol-dependent mTORC1 activation in the OFC. We found that inhibition of mTORC1 activity attenuates alcohol seeking and restores sensitivity to outcome devaluation in rats that habitually seek alcohol. In contrast, habitual responding for sucrose was unaltered by mTORC1 inhibition, suggesting that mTORC1's role in habitual behavior is specific to alcohol. We further show that inhibition of GluN2B in the OFC attenuates alcohol-dependent mTORC1 activation, alcohol seeking and habitual responding for alcohol. Together, these data suggest that the GluN2B/mTORC1 axis in the OFC drives alcohol seeking and habit.
Source data flles have been provided for Figures 1-5
- Dorit Ron
- Dorit Ron
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal procedures were approved by the University of California San Francisco Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) and were conducted in agreement with the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC).(protocol number number AN179720-01B),
- Mary Kay Lobo, University of Maryland, United States
© 2019, Morisot et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The circadian clock orchestrates daily changes in physiology and behavior to ensure internal temporal order and optimal timing across the day. In animals, a central brain clock coordinates circadian rhythms throughout the body and is characterized by a remarkable robustness that depends on synaptic connections between constituent neurons. The clock neuron network of Drosophila, which shares network motifs with clock networks in the mammalian brain yet is built of many fewer neurons, offers a powerful model for understanding the network properties of circadian timekeeping. Here we report an assessment of synaptic connectivity within a clock network, focusing on the critical lateral neuron (LN) clock neuron classes within the Janelia hemibrain dataset. Our results reveal that previously identified anatomical and functional subclasses of LNs represent distinct connectomic types. Moreover, we identify a small number of non-clock cell subtypes representing highly synaptically coupled nodes within the clock neuron network. This suggests that neurons lacking molecular timekeeping likely play integral roles within the circadian timekeeping network. To our knowledge, this represents the first comprehensive connectomic analysis of a circadian neuronal network.