(A) Myelin purified from sciatic nerves dissected from Prx-/- and control mice at P21 was separated by SDS-PAGE (0.5 µg protein load) and proteins were visualized by silver staining. Bands constituted by the most abundant myelin proteins (MPZ/P0, MBP, PRX) are annotated. Note that no band constituted by PRX was detected in Prx-/- myelin and that several other bands also display genotype-dependent differences in intensity. Gel shows n = 2 biological replicates representative of n = 3 biological replicates. (B) The relative abundance of proteins in myelin purified from Prx-/- sciatic nerves as quantified by MSE is given as percent with relative standard deviation (% +/- RSD). Note the increased relative abundance of MPZ/P0 and MBP compared to wild-type myelin (see Figure 2) when PRX is lacking. Mass spectrometric quantification based on 3 biological replicates with 4 technical replicates each (see Figure 5—source data 1). (C,D) Differential proteome analysis by DRE-UDMSE of myelin purified from Prx-/- and wild-type mice. Mass spectrometric quantification based on 3 biological replicates per genotype with 4 technical replicates each (see Figure 5—source data 2). (C) Top 40 proteins of which the abundance is reduced (blue) or increased (red) in peripheral myelin purified from Prx-/- compared to wild-type mice with the highest level of significance according to the -log10 transformed q-value (green). In the heatmaps, each horizontal line corresponds to the fold-change (FC) of a distinct protein compared to its average abundance in wild-type myelin plotted on a log2 color scale. Heatmaps display 12 replicates, that is 3 biological replicates per genotype with 4 technical replicates each. (D-D‘‘‘) Volcano plots representing genotype-dependent quantitative myelin proteome analysis. Data points represent quantified proteins in Prx-/- compared to wild-type myelin and are plotted as the log2-transformed fold-change (FC) on the x-axis against the -log10-transformed q-value on the y-axis. Stippled lines mark a -log10-transformed q-value of 1.301, reflecting a q-value of 0.05 as significance threshold. Highlighted are the datapoints representing the Top 10 proteins displaying highest zdist values (Euclidean distance between the two points (0,0) and (x,y) with x = log2(FC) and y = -log10(q-value) (red circles in D), immune-related proteins (purple circles in D‘), proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM; yellow circles in D‘‘) and known myelin proteins (blue circles in D‘‘‘). n.d., not detected; n.q., no q-value computable due to protein identification in one genotype only. Also see Figure 5—figure supplement 1. (E) Immunoblot of myelin purified from Prx-/- and control sciatic nerves confirms the reduced abundance of DRP2, SLC16A1/MCT1, BSG and PMP2 in Prx-/- myelin, as found by differential DRE-UDMSE analysis (in C,D). PRX was detected as genotype control; PLP/DM20 and ATP1A1 serve as markers. Blot shows n = 2 biological replicates per genotype. (F) Teased fiber preparations of sciatic nerves dissected from Prx-/- and control mice immunolabelled for MAG (red) and SLC16A1 (green). Note that SLC16A1 co-distributes with MAG in Schmidt-Lanterman incisures (SLI) in control but not in Prx-/- nerves, in accordance with the reduced abundance of SLC16A1 in Prx-/- myelin (C–E). Also note that, in Prx-/- myelin, SLI were largely undetectable by MAG immunolabeling.