A total of 845 individuals were included to estimate the mortality associations of BAs in subgroups. The numbers of individuals in each subgroups were specified in the Supplementary file 1G–I. We used Cox regression models to estimate the change in mortality risk associated with a one-SD increment of the respective BA at baseline assessment (one-BA models). All models controlled for sex, educational attainment, smoking status, and BMI, stratified by participants’ birth year, and accounted for left truncation and right censoring. Attained age was used as the time-scale and thus age was inherently adjusted for. BA-mortality associations by were illustrated in the forest plot (Panel A-C), in which points and horizontal lines denoted HRs (95%CIs) and point shapes and colors represented subgroups. The associations of BAs with mortality risk were generally stronger in women (except for Horvath DNAmAge and physiological age), more pronounced in the younger individuals (except for Horvath DNAmAge, physiological age and cognitive function), and a bit stronger in current or ex- smokers (for Horvath DNAmAge and DNAmGrimAge). BA, biological age; DNAmAge, DNA methylation age estimator; FAI, functional aging index; FI, frailty index; CA, chronological age; HRs (95%CIs), hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval).