Bundles of cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors generate motion in living cells, and have internal structures ranging from very organized to apparently disordered. The mechanisms powering the disordered structures are debated, and existing models predominantly predict that they are contractile. We reexamine this prediction through a theoretical treatment of the interplay between three well-characterized internal dynamical processes in cytoskeletal bundles: filament assembly and disassembly, the attachment-detachment dynamics of motors and that of crosslinking proteins. The resulting self-organization is easily understood in terms of motor and crosslink localization, and allows for an extensive control of the active bundle mechanics, including reversals of the filaments' apparent velocities and the possibility of generating extension instead of contraction. This reversal mirrors some recent experimental observations, and provides a robust criterion to experimentally elucidate the underpinnings of both actomyosin activity and the dynamics of microtubule/motor assemblies in vitro as well as in diverse intracellular structures ranging from contractile bundles to the mitotic spindle.
This study does not involve the generation or analysis of data.
- Martin Lenz
- Martin Lenz
- Martin Lenz
- Martin Lenz
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Raymond E Goldstein, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
© 2020, Lenz
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Spatial organization of chromatin plays a critical role in genome regulation. Previously, various types of affnity mediators and enzymes have been attributed to regulate spatial organization of chromatin from a thermodynamics perspective. However, at the mechanistic level, enzymes act in their unique ways and perturb the chromatin. Here, we construct a polymer physics model following the mechanistic scheme of Topoisomerase-II, an enzyme resolving topological constraints of chromatin, and investigate how it affects interphase chromatin organization. Our computer simulations demonstrate Topoisomerase-II's ability to phase separate chromatin into eu- and heterochromatic regions with a characteristic wall-like organization of the euchromatic regions. We realized that the ability of the euchromatic regions to cross each other due to enzymatic activity of Topoisomerase-II induces this phase separation. This realization is based on the physical fact that partial absence of self-avoiding interaction can induce phase separation of a system into its self-avoiding and non-self-avoiding parts, which we reveal using a mean-field argument. Furthermore, motivated from recent experimental observations, we extend our model to a bidisperse setting and show that the characteristic features of the enzymatic activity driven phase separation survive there. The existence of these robust characteristic features, even under the non-localized action of the enzyme, highlights the critical role of enzymatic activity in chromatin organization.
Inside prokaryotic cells, passive translational diffusion typically limits the rates with which cytoplasmic proteins can reach their locations. Diffusion is thus fundamental to most cellular processes, but the understanding of protein mobility in the highly crowded and non-homogeneous environment of a bacterial cell is still limited. Here we investigated the mobility of a large set of proteins in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli, by employing fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) combined with simulations and theoretical modeling. We conclude that cytoplasmic protein mobility could be well described by Brownian diffusion in the confined geometry of the bacterial cell and at the high viscosity imposed by macromolecular crowding. We observed similar size dependence of protein diffusion for the majority of tested proteins, whether native or foreign to E. coli. For the faster-diffusing proteins, this size dependence is well consistent with the Stokes-Einstein relation once taking into account the specific dumbbell shape of protein fusions. Pronounced subdiffusion and hindered mobility are only observed for proteins with extensive interactions within the cytoplasm. Finally, while protein diffusion becomes markedly faster in actively growing cells, at high temperature, or upon treatment with rifampicin, and slower at high osmolarity, all of these perturbations affect proteins of different sizes in the same proportions, which could thus be described as changes of a well-defined cytoplasmic viscosity.