Bundles of cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors generate motion in living cells, and have internal structures ranging from very organized to apparently disordered. The mechanisms powering the disordered structures are debated, and existing models predominantly predict that they are contractile. We reexamine this prediction through a theoretical treatment of the interplay between three well-characterized internal dynamical processes in cytoskeletal bundles: filament assembly and disassembly, the attachment-detachment dynamics of motors and that of crosslinking proteins. The resulting self-organization is easily understood in terms of motor and crosslink localization, and allows for an extensive control of the active bundle mechanics, including reversals of the filaments' apparent velocities and the possibility of generating extension instead of contraction. This reversal mirrors some recent experimental observations, and provides a robust criterion to experimentally elucidate the underpinnings of both actomyosin activity and the dynamics of microtubule/motor assemblies in vitro as well as in diverse intracellular structures ranging from contractile bundles to the mitotic spindle.
This study does not involve the generation or analysis of data.
- Martin Lenz
- Martin Lenz
- Martin Lenz
- Martin Lenz
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Raymond E Goldstein, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
© 2020, Lenz
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Phenotypic variations between individual microbial cells play a key role in the resistance of microbial pathogens to pharmacotherapies. Nevertheless, little is known about cell individuality in antibiotic accumulation. Here, we hypothesise that phenotypic diversification can be driven by fundamental cell-to-cell differences in drug transport rates. To test this hypothesis, we employed microfluidics-based single-cell microscopy, libraries of fluorescent antibiotic probes and mathematical modelling. This approach allowed us to rapidly identify phenotypic variants that avoid antibiotic accumulation within populations of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia, and Staphylococcus aureus. Crucially, we found that fast growing phenotypic variants avoid macrolide accumulation and survive treatment without genetic mutations. These findings are in contrast with the current consensus that cellular dormancy and slow metabolism underlie bacterial survival to antibiotics. Our results also show that fast growing variants display significantly higher expression of ribosomal promoters before drug treatment compared to slow growing variants. Drug-free active ribosomes facilitate essential cellular processes in these fast-growing variants, including efflux that can reduce macrolide accumulation. We used this new knowledge to eradicate variants that displayed low antibiotic accumulation through the chemical manipulation of their outer membrane inspiring new avenues to overcome current antibiotic treatment failures.
We report the real-time response of E. coli to lactoferricin-derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on length-scales bridging microscopic cell-sizes to nanoscopic lipid packing using millisecond time-resolved synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering. Coupling a multi-scale scattering data analysis to biophysical assays for peptide partitioning revealed that the AMPs rapidly permeabilize the cytosolic membrane within less than three seconds-much faster than previously considered. Final intracellular AMP concentrations of ~ 80 to 100 mM suggest an efficient obstruction of physiologically important processes as primary cause for bacterial killing. On the other hand, damage of the cell envelope and leakage occurred also at sublethal peptide concentrations, thus emerging as a collateral effect of AMP activity that does not kill the bacteria. This implies that the impairment of the membrane barrier is a necessary but not sufficient condition for microbial killing by lactoferricins. The most efficient AMP studied exceeds others in both speed of permeabilizing membranes and lowest intracellular peptide concentration needed to inhibit bacterial growth.