PD-1 blockade therapy has revolutionized cancer treatments. However, a substantial population of patients is unresponsive. To rescue unresponsive patients, the mechanism of unresponsiveness to PD-1 blockade therapy must be elucidated. Using a 'bilateral tumor model' where responsive and unresponsive tumors were inoculated into different sides of the mouse belly, we demonstrated that unresponsive tumors can be categorized into two groups: with and without systemic immunosuppressive property (SIP). The SIP-positive tumors released uncharacterized, non-proteinaceous small molecules that inhibited T cell proliferation and mitochondrial activation. By contrast, the SIP-negative B16 tumor escaped from immunity by losing MHC class I expression. Unresponsiveness of SIP-positive tumors was partially overcome by improving the mitochondrial function with a mitochondrial activator; this was not successful for B16, which employs immune ignorance. These results demonstrated that 'bilateral tumor model' was useful for stratifying tumors to investigate the mechanism of unresponsiveness and develop a strategy for proper combination therapy.
We have uploaded qPCR primers sequences related to Supplementary Figure S6 to 'Dryad repositories'. doi:10.5061/dryad.vq83bk3np
Tumors attenuating the mitochondrial activity in T cells escape from PD-1 blockade therapyDryad Digital Repository, doi:10.5061/dryad.vq83bk3np.
- Tasuku Honjo
- Tasuku Honjo
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: His study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee of Kyoto University. The protocol was approved by the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments of the Kyoto University (Permit Number: Medkyo19080). All surgery was performed under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia, and every effort was made to minimize suffering.
- Yutaka Kawakami, Keio University School of Medicine, Japan
© 2020, Kumar et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The co-expression of inhibitory receptors (IRs) is a hallmark of CD8+ T-cell exhaustion (Tex) in people living with HIV-1 (PLWH). Understanding alterations of IRs expression in PLWH on long-term antiretroviral treatment (ART) remains elusive but is critical to overcoming CD8+ Tex and designing novel HIV-1 cure immunotherapies. To address this, we combine high-dimensional supervised and unsupervised analysis of IRs concomitant with functional markers across the CD8+ T-cell landscape on 24 PLWH over a decade on ART. We define irreversible alterations of IRs co-expression patterns in CD8+ T cells not mitigated by ART and identify negative associations between the frequency of TIGIT+ and TIGIT+ TIM-3+ and CD4+ T-cell levels. Moreover, changes in total, SEB-activated, and HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells delineate a complex reshaping of memory and effector-like cellular clusters on ART. Indeed, we identify a selective reduction of HIV-1 specific-CD8+ T-cell memory-like clusters sharing TIGIT expression and low CD107a that can be recovered by mAb TIGIT blockade independently of IFNγ and IL-2. Collectively, these data characterize with unprecedented detail the patterns of IRs expression and functions across the CD8+ T-cell landscape and indicate the potential of TIGIT as a target for Tex precision immunotherapies in PLWH at all ART stages.
Age-associated DNA methylation in blood cells convey information on health status. However, the mechanisms that drive these changes in circulating cells and their relationships to gene regulation are unknown. We identified age-associated DNA methylation sites in six purified blood-borne immune cell types (naive B, naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, granulocytes, monocytes, and NK cells) collected from healthy individuals interspersed over a wide age range. Of the thousands of age-associated sites, only 350 sites were differentially methylated in the same direction in all cell types and validated in an independent longitudinal cohort. Genes close to age-associated hypomethylated sites were enriched for collagen biosynthesis and complement cascade pathways, while genes close to hypermethylated sites mapped to neuronal pathways. In silico analyses showed that in most cell types, the age-associated hypo- and hypermethylated sites were enriched for ARNT (HIF1β) and REST transcription factor (TF) motifs, respectively, which are both master regulators of hypoxia response. To conclude, despite spatial heterogeneity, there is a commonality in the putative regulatory role with respect to TF motifs and histone modifications at and around these sites. These features suggest that DNA methylation changes in healthy aging may be adaptive responses to fluctuations of oxygen availability.