Breathing results from the interaction of three distinct oscillators: the pre-Bötzinger Complex (preBötC), driving inspiration, the post-inspiratory complex (PiCo), driving post-inspiration, and the lateral parafacial region (pFRG), driving active expiration. The pFRG is silent at rest and becomes rhythmically active during stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors, which also activates adrenergic C1 cells. We postulated that the C1 cells and the pFRG may constitute functionally distinct but interacting populations for controlling expiratory activity during hypoxia. We found in rats that a) C1 neurons are activated by hypoxia and project to the pFRG region; b) active expiration elicited by hypoxia was blunted after blockade of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors at the level of the pFRG; and c) selective depletion of C1 neurons eliminated the active expiration elicited by hypoxia. These results suggest that C1 cells may regulate the respiratory cycle, including active expiration, under hypoxic conditions.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript
- Milene R Malheiros-Lima
- Ana C Takakura
- Thiago S Moreira
- Thiago S Moreira
- Ana C Takakura
- Thiago S Moreira
The funders had no role in study design, data collection, and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#07-2014) of the Institute of Biomedical Science of the University of São Paulo. All surgery was performed under anesthesia, and every effort was made to minimize suffering.
- Ronald L Calabrese, Emory University, United States
© 2020, Malheiros-Lima et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The heterogeneity of white matter damage and symptoms in concussion has been identified as a major obstacle to therapeutic innovation. In contrast, most diffusion MRI (dMRI) studies on concussion have traditionally relied on group-comparison approaches that average out heterogeneity. To leverage, rather than average out, concussion heterogeneity, we combined dMRI and multivariate statistics to characterize multi-tract multi-symptom relationships.
Using cross-sectional data from 306 previously concussed children aged 9–10 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study, we built connectomes weighted by classical and emerging diffusion measures. These measures were combined into two informative indices, the first representing microstructural complexity, the second representing axonal density. We deployed pattern-learning algorithms to jointly decompose these connectivity features and 19 symptom measures.
Early multi-tract multi-symptom pairs explained the most covariance and represented broad symptom categories, such as a general problems pair, or a pair representing all cognitive symptoms, and implicated more distributed networks of white matter tracts. Further pairs represented more specific symptom combinations, such as a pair representing attention problems exclusively, and were associated with more localized white matter abnormalities. Symptom representation was not systematically related to tract representation across pairs. Sleep problems were implicated across most pairs, but were related to different connections across these pairs. Expression of multi-tract features was not driven by sociodemographic and injury-related variables, as well as by clinical subgroups defined by the presence of ADHD. Analyses performed on a replication dataset showed consistent results.
Using a double-multivariate approach, we identified clinically-informative, cross-demographic multi-tract multi-symptom relationships. These results suggest that rather than clear one-to-one symptom-connectivity disturbances, concussions may be characterized by subtypes of symptom/connectivity relationships. The symptom/connectivity relationships identified in multi-tract multi-symptom pairs were not apparent in single-tract/single-symptom analyses. Future studies aiming to better understand connectivity/symptom relationships should take into account multi-tract multi-symptom heterogeneity.
Financial support for this work came from a Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarship from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (G.I.G.), an Ontario Graduate Scholarship (S.S.), a Restracomp Research Fellowship provided by the Hospital for Sick Children (S.S.), an Institutional Research Chair in Neuroinformatics (M.D.), as well as a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council CREATE grant (M.D.).
Gustatory sensory neurons detect caloric and harmful compounds in potential food and convey this information to the brain to inform feeding decisions. To examine the signals that gustatory neurons transmit and receive, we reconstructed gustatory axons and their synaptic sites in the adult Drosophila melanogaster brain, utilizing a whole-brain electron microscopy volume. We reconstructed 87 gustatory projections from the proboscis labellum in the right hemisphere and 57 from the left, representing the majority of labellar gustatory axons. Gustatory neurons contain a nearly equal number of interspersed pre-and post-synaptic sites, with extensive synaptic connectivity among gustatory axons. Morphology- and connectivity-based clustering revealed six distinct groups, likely representing neurons recognizing different taste modalities. The vast majority of synaptic connections are between neurons of the same group. This study resolves the anatomy of labellar gustatory projections, reveals that gustatory projections are segregated based on taste modality, and uncovers synaptic connections that may alter the transmission of gustatory signals.