Mononuclear diploid cardiomyocytes support neonatal mouse heart regeneration in response to paracrine IGF2 signaling
Injury to the newborn mouse heart is efficiently regenerated, but this capacity is lost by one week after birth. We found that IGF2, an important mitogen in heart development, is required for neonatal heart regeneration. IGF2 originates from the endocardium/endothelium and is transduced in cardiomyocytes by the insulin receptor. Following injury on postnatal day 1, absence of IGF2 abolished injury-induced cell cycle entry during the early part of the first postnatal week. Consequently, regeneration failed despite the later presence of additional cell cycle-inducing activities 7 days following injury. Most cardiomyocytes transition from mononuclear diploid to polyploid during the first postnatal week. Regeneration was rescued in Igf2-deficient neonates in three different contexts that elevate the percentage of mononuclear diploid cardiomyocytes beyond postnatal day 7. Thus, IGF2 is a paracrine-acting mitogen for heart regeneration during the early postnatal period, and IGF2-deficiency unmasks the dependence of this process on proliferation-competent mononuclear diploid cardiomyocytes.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
Article and author information
National Institutes of Health (HL070123)
- Henry Sucov
American Heart Association (17SDG33400141)
- Ge Tao
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocol 10173 of the University of Southern California and protocols 2018-00642 and 2018-00310 of the Medical University of South Carolina.
- Caroline E Burns, Boston Children's Hospital, United States
- Received: October 28, 2019
- Accepted: March 12, 2020
- Accepted Manuscript published: March 13, 2020 (version 1)
- Version of Record published: March 30, 2020 (version 2)
© 2020, Shen et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
- Page views
Article citation count generated by polling the highest count across the following sources: Crossref, PubMed Central, Scopus.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Cite this article (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
- Developmental Biology
- Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
Ribosomal protein (Rp) gene haploinsufficiency can result in Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA), characterized by defective erythropoiesis and skeletal defects. Some mouse Rp mutations recapitulate DBA phenotypes, although others lack erythropoietic or skeletal defects. We generated a conditional knockout mouse to partially delete Rps12. Homozygous Rps12 deletion resulted in embryonic lethality. Mice inheriting the Rps12+/- genotype had growth and morphological defects, pancytopenia and impaired erythropoiesis. A striking reduction in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitors in the bone marrow (BM) was associated with decreased ability to repopulate the blood system after competitive and non-competitive BM transplantation. Rps12+/- mutants lost HSC quiescence, experienced ERK and MTOR activation and increased global translation in HSC and progenitors. Post-natal heterozygous deletion of Rps12 in hematopoietic cells using Tal1-Cre-ERT also resulted in pancytopenia with decreased HSC numbers. However, post-natal Cre-ERT induction led to reduced translation in HSCs and progenitors, suggesting that this is the most direct consequence of Rps12 haploinsufficiency in hematopoietic cells. Thus, RpS12 has a strong requirement in HSC function, in addition to erythropoiesis.
- Developmental Biology
- Evolutionary Biology
During development, the growing organism transits through a series of temporally regulated morphological stages to generate the adult form. In humans, for example, development progresses from childhood through to puberty and then to adulthood, when sexual maturity is attained. Similarly, in holometabolous insects, immature juveniles transit to the adult form through an intermediate pupal stage when larval tissues are eliminated and the imaginal progenitor cells form the adult structures. The identity of the larval, pupal, and adult stages depends on the sequential expression of the transcription factors chinmo, Br-C, and E93. However, how these transcription factors determine temporal identity in developing tissues is poorly understood. Here, we report on the role of the larval specifier chinmo in larval and adult progenitor cells during fly development. Interestingly, chinmo promotes growth in larval and imaginal tissues in a Br-C-independent and -dependent manner, respectively. In addition, we found that the absence of chinmo during metamorphosis is critical for proper adult differentiation. Importantly, we also provide evidence that, in contrast to the well-known role of chinmo as a pro-oncogene, Br-C and E93 act as tumour suppressors. Finally, we reveal that the function of chinmo as a juvenile specifier is conserved in hemimetabolous insects as its homolog has a similar role in Blatella germanica. Taken together, our results suggest that the sequential expression of the transcription factors Chinmo, Br-C and E93 during larva, pupa an adult respectively, coordinate the formation of the different organs that constitute the adult organism.