(A) The true positive rate in the uncorrected case (left-most panel), in two cases of simultaneous correction (second and third panels), and in three cases of sequential correction (fourth, fifth and sixth panels). In each panel the true positive rate after 100 tests is plotted as a function of two simulation parameters: λ (x-axis) and the simulated covariance of the true positives (y-axis). When λ is positive (negative), it increases the probability of the true positives being an earlier (later) test. Plots are based on simulations in which there are ten true positives in the data: see main text for details. (B) Same as A for the false positive rate. (C) Same as A for the false discovery rate. (D) Same as C for the average false discovery rate in four quadrants. Q1 has λ <0; covariance >0.25. Q2 has λ >0; covariance >0.25. Q3 has λ <0; covariance <0.25. Q4 has λ >0; covariance <0.25. The probability of true positives being an earlier test is highest in Q2 and Q4 as λ >0 in these quadrants. (E) Same as D with the false discovery rate (y-axis) plotted against the percentage of true positives (x-axis) for the four quadrants. The dotted lines in D and E indicate a false discovery rate of 0.05. Code is available at https://github.com/wiheto/datasetdecay (Thompson, 2020; copy archived at https://github.com/elifesciences-publications/datasetdecay).