Modulating cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) Ca2+-release channels is a universal signaling pathway that regulates numerous cell-physiological processes. Whereas much is known regarding regulation of InsP3R activity by cytoplasmic ligands and processes, its regulation by ER-luminal Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]ER) is poorly understood and controversial. We discovered that the InsP3R is regulated by a peripheral membrane-associated ER-luminal protein that strongly inhibits the channel in the presence of high, physiological [Ca2+]ER. The widely-expressed Ca2+-binding protein annexin A1 (ANXA1) is present in the nuclear envelope lumen and, through interaction with a luminal region of the channel, can modify high-[Ca2+]ER inhibition of InsP3R activity. Genetic knockdown of ANXA1 expression enhanced global and local elementary InsP3-mediated Ca2+ signaling events. Thus, [Ca2+]ER is a major regulator of InsP3R channel activity and InsP3R-mediated [Ca2+]i signaling in cells by controlling an interaction of the channel with a peripheral membrane-associated Ca2+-binding protein, likely ANXA1.
- J Kevin Foskett
- Don-On Daniel Mak
- Ian Parker
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Mark T Nelson, University of Vermont, United States
© 2020, Vais et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is targeted in the treatment of B-cell disorders including leukemias and lymphomas. Currently approved BTK inhibitors, including Ibrutinib, a first-in-class covalent inhibitor of BTK, bind directly to the kinase active site. While effective at blocking the catalytic activity of BTK, consequences of drug binding on the global conformation of full-length BTK are unknown. Here we uncover a range of conformational effects in full-length BTK induced by a panel of active site inhibitors, including large-scale shifts in the conformational equilibria of the regulatory domains. Additionally, we find that a remote Ibrutinib resistance mutation, T316A in the BTK SH2 domain, drives spurious BTK activity by destabilizing the compact autoinhibitory conformation of full-length BTK, shifting the conformational ensemble away from the autoinhibited form. Future development of BTK inhibitors will need to consider long-range allosteric consequences of inhibitor binding, including the emerging application of these BTK inhibitors in treating COVID-19.
Sulfur-aromatic interactions occur in the majority of protein structures, yet little is known about their functional roles in ion channels. Here, we describe a novel molecular motif, the M101 gate latch, which is essential for gating of human Orai1 channels via its sulfur-aromatic interactions with the F99 hydrophobic gate. Molecular dynamics simulations of different Orai variants reveal that the gate latch is mostly engaged in open but not closed channels. In experimental studies, we use metal-ion bridges to show that promoting an M101-F99 bond directly activates Orai1, whereas disrupting this interaction triggers channel closure. Mutational analysis demonstrates that the methionine residue at this position has a unique combination of length, flexibility, and chemistry to act as an effective latch for the phenylalanine gate. Because sulfur-aromatic interactions provide additional stabilization compared to purely hydrophobic interactions, we infer that the six M101-F99 pairs in the hexameric channel provide a substantial energetic contribution to Orai1 activation.