(A) ASD mutations at the 3’-end of 16S rRNA are highlighted in color. (B) Schematic of MS2RP: polysomes are collapsed to monosomes by RNase T1 digestion, MS2-tagged monosomes are pulled down with the MS2 coat-protein, and mRNA is fully digested to yield ribosome footprints that are subjected to deep sequencing. (C) RT-PCR of 16S rRNA from cell lysates (L) and the eluate (E) from the MS2 coat-protein column. (D) Scatter plot of ribosome occupancy (RO), the ratio of ribosome profiling to RNA-seq reads, from MS2RP of O-ribosomes vs. C-ribosomes. The red line indicates a 10-fold enrichment and the Pearson correlation is given. (E) Ribosome footprints (in reads per million mapped reads) from MS2RP of O-ribosomes and C-ribosomes on the hemA gene. The sequence upstream of the start codon is predicted to pair with the ASD of O-ribosomes.