Variation in autumnal expression from starting expression levels and initial cold-down-regulation, rather than epigenetic silencing, is the major field variable conferred by worldwide haplotypes of the floral repressor gene, FLC.
Human plasma contains protein-protected mRNA fragments, myriad repeat RNAs, and novel intron RNAs, including a family of structured full-length excised introns, some corresponding to mirtron pre-miRNAs and agotrons.
Large regions of foreign DNA inserted into mammalian chromosomes assemble into H3K9me3-heterochromatin and result in increased condensin loading with organisation into shorter mitotic chromosome loops than endogenous DNA.
Human genomic DNA contains uracil in the late replicating, constitutive heterochromatic regions, while treatment with drugs perturbing thymidylate biosynthesis shifts the uracil distribution pattern towards the euchromatin in UNG-inhibited cells.
Proper development depends on establishing precise gene expression patterns in spite of the inherent noise in transcription, shadow enhancers buffer this noise by binding distinct input transcription factors.
Analyses of allelic- and socially-biased gene expression reveal that suppressed recombination causes most of the expression differences in the social supergene, with only few differences due to socially antagonistic selection.