Layering has been a long-appreciated feature of higher order mammalian brain structures but the extent to which it plays an instructive role in synaptic specification remains unknown. Here we examine the formation of synaptic circuitry under cellular heterotopia in hippocampal CA1, using a mouse model of the human neurodevelopmental disorder Type I Lissencephaly. We identify calbindin-expressing principal cells which are mispositioned under cellular heterotopia. Ectopic calbindin-expressing principal cells develop relatively normal morphological features and stunted intrinsic physiological features. Regarding network development, a connectivity preference for cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons to target calbindin-expressing principal cells is diminished. Moreover, in vitro gamma oscillatory activity is less synchronous across heterotopic bands and mutants are less responsive to pharmacological inhibition of cholecystokinin-containing interneurons. This study will aid not only in our understanding of how cellular networks form but highlight vulnerable cellular circuit motifs that might be generalized across disease states.
- James A D'Amour
- Chris J McBain
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All experiments were conducted in accordance with animal protocols approved by the National Institutes of Health Animal Care and Use Committee (protocol 11-045). All practices aligned with the recommendations of the American Veterinary Medical Association. Care was taken to minimize any suffering.
- Inna Slutsky, Tel Aviv University, Israel
This is an open-access article, free of all copyright, and may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. The work is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication.
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Within the cervical and lumbar spinal enlargements, central pattern generator (CPG) circuitry produces the rhythmic output necessary for limb coordination during locomotion. Long propriospinal neurons that inter-connect these CPGs are thought to secure hindlimb-forelimb coordination, ensuring that diagonal limb pairs move synchronously while the ipsilateral limb pairs move out-of-phase during stepping. Here, we show that silencing long ascending propriospinal neurons (LAPNs) that inter-connect the lumbar and cervical CPGs disrupts left-right limb coupling of each limb pair in the adult rat during overground locomotion on a high-friction surface. These perturbations occurred independent of the locomotor rhythm, intralimb coordination, and speed-dependent (or any other) principal features of locomotion. Strikingly, the functional consequences of silencing LAPNs are highly context-dependent; the phenotype was not expressed during swimming, treadmill stepping, exploratory locomotion, or walking on an uncoated, slick surface. These data reveal surprising flexibility and context-dependence in the control of interlimb coordination during locomotion.
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