(A) Model showing self adhesion of two S. cerevisiae Flo11 molecules (ScFlo11) conferred by homotypic binding of ScFlo11A adhesion domains (green sphere), which are covalently anchored via ScFlo11BC (beige spheres) and a transamidated GPI motif (brown sphere) to the cell wall (Kraushaar et al., 2015). (B) Phylogenetic tree of Flo11A-type domains from different Saccharomycetales species. The tree was created by using the webPRANK alignment server (Löytynoja and Goldman, 2010) and 52 Flo11A sequences from different S. cerevisiae strains together with 16 Flo11A-type sequences from S. paradoxus, S. kudriavzevii, S. bayanus, S. arboricolus, S. mikatae, K. lactis, T. delbrueckii, K. pastoris, C. lusitaniae, S. passalidarum and M. guilliermondii, respectively. Affiliations of Flo11A-type sequences with the families of Saccharomycetaceae, Phaffomycetaceae, Metschnikowiaceae or Debaryomycetaceae are indicated by colors. Absence (green) or presence (magenta) of a small insert of about 15 amino acids in Flo11A sequences from Saccharomyces species is indicated. For Flo11A sequences from S. cerevisiae, names of corresponding strains are indicated followed by the UniProt database identification number, where available. S. cerevisiae strains with clean lineages, which according to whole genome analysis form five well-supported clades (Wine/European; North American; Malaysian; West African; Sake) (Liti et al., 2009), are indicated by different symbols. For all other Flo11A-type sequences, names of corresponding yeast species are shown followed by the UniProt identification number. For Flo11-type proteins carrying multiple Flo11A domains, position of the domain relative to the N-terminus is indicated (A: first; B: second; C: third). Flo11A-type domains functionally characterized in S. cerevisiae in this study are shown in red. (C) Diagram showing the architecture of ScFlo11 (top) together with the structure of the ScFlo11A adhesion domain with the aromatic surface residues (Kraushaar et al., 2015) (left inlet) and seven Flo11A domains from different Saccharomycetales species that were replaced for ScFlo11A (right inlet, colored according to B). Numbers above diagram indicates amino acid residues flanking the A and BC region of ScFlo11. The length of the A region of different species varies between 185 and 240 amino acids (Figure 1—figure supplement 1).