Before the main task, participants experienced and ranked three food stimuli and three touch stimuli, based on liking (Figure 2). In the main task (here depicted), the highest-ranked (‘high’) reward was announced in half of the trials and the second-highest ranked (‘low’) reward was announced in the other half of trials. The probability of obtaining the announced reward was determined linearly by participants’ hand-squeezing effort, which was indicated in real-time. Participants knew that they would obtain the announced reward if they reached the top of the displayed vertical bar, which corresponded to their previously measured maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The gained reward (which was either the one announced at the beginning of the trial, or – in the case of lower probability due to less squeezing – the least-liked ‘verylow’ reward) was then announced and delivered. To assess reward anticipation, EMG data was analyzed during the Pre-Effort anticipation period (3 s) at the beginning of the trial, when a possible reward was announced, as well as during the Post-Effort anticipation period (3 s announcement) preceding reward delivery. To investigate reward consumption, EMG data was analyzed during reward Delivery (5 s for food and 6.5 s for touch), and in the immediately following Relax phase (5 s). Rating slides stayed on screen indefinitely, or until participants’ button press. For a representation of all trial elements see Figure 1—figure supplement 1.