The palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT) ZDHHC14 is highly expressed in the hippocampus and is the only PAT predicted to bind Type I PDZ domain-containing proteins. However, ZDHHC14's neuronal roles are unknown. Here, we identify the PDZ domain-containing Membrane-associated Guanylate Kinase (MaGUK) PSD93 as a direct ZDHHC14 interactor and substrate. PSD93, but not other MaGUKs, localizes to the Axon Initial Segment (AIS). Using lentiviral-mediated shRNA knockdown in rat hippocampal neurons, we find that ZDHHC14 controls palmitoylation and AIS clustering of PSD93 and also of Kv1 potassium channels, which directly bind PSD93. Neurodevelopmental expression of ZDHHC14 mirrors that of PSD93 and Kv1 channels and, consistent with ZDHHC14's importance for Kv1 channel clustering, loss of ZDHHC14 decreases outward currents and increases action potential firing in hippocampal neurons. To our knowledge, these findings identify the first neuronal roles and substrates for ZDHHC14 and reveal a previously unappreciated role for palmitoylation in control of neuronal excitability.
All data generated during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files. Source data files have been provided for all figures in the source data excel file.
- Shaun S Sanders
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols (#4939) of Temple University.
- Leon D Islas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico
© 2020, Sanders et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Resolving trajectories of axonal pathways in the primate prefrontal cortex remains crucial to gain insights into higher-order processes of cognition and emotion, which requires a comprehensive map of axonal projections linking demarcated subdivisions of prefrontal cortex and the rest of brain. Here, we report a mesoscale excitatory projectome issued from the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) to the entire macaque brain by using viral-based genetic axonal tracing in tandem with high-throughput serial two-photon tomography, which demonstrated prominent monosynaptic projections to other prefrontal areas, temporal, limbic, and subcortical areas, relatively weak projections to parietal and insular regions but no projections directly to the occipital lobe. In a common 3D space, we quantitatively validated an atlas of diffusion tractography-derived vlPFC connections with correlative green fluorescent protein-labeled axonal tracing, and observed generally good agreement except a major difference in the posterior projections of inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. These findings raise an intriguing question as to how neural information passes along long-range association fiber bundles in macaque brains, and call for the caution of using diffusion tractography to map the wiring diagram of brain circuits.
Background: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) electrode implant trajectories are stereotactically defined using preoperative neuroimaging. To validate the correct trajectory, microelectrode recordings (MER) or local field potential recordings (LFP) can be used to extend neuroanatomical information (defined by magnetic resonance imaging) with neurophysiological activity patterns recorded from micro- and macroelectrodes probing the surgical target site. Currently, these two sources of information (imaging vs. electrophysiology) are analyzed separately, while means to fuse both data streams have not been introduced.
Methods: Here we present a tool that integrates resources from stereotactic planning, neuroimaging, MER and high-resolution atlas data to create a real-time visualization of the implant trajectory. We validate the tool based on a retrospective cohort of DBS patients (𝑁 = 52) offline and present single use cases of the real-time platform. Results: We establish an open-source software tool for multimodal data visualization and analysis during DBS surgery. We show a general correspondence between features derived from neuroimaging and electrophysiological recordings and present examples that demonstrate the functionality of the tool.
Conclusions: This novel software platform for multimodal data visualization and analysis bears translational potential to improve accuracy of DBS surgery. The toolbox is made openly available and is extendable to integrate with additional software packages.
Funding: Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft (410169619, 424778381), Deutsches Zentrum für Luftund Raumfahrt (DynaSti), National Institutes of Health (2R01 MH113929), Foundation for OCD Research (FFOR).