The classical drug development pipeline necessitates studies using animal models of human disease to gauge future efficacy in humans, however there is a low conversion rate from success in animals to humans. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a complex chronic disease without any established therapies and a major field of animal research. We performed a meta-analysis with meta-regression of 603 interventional rodent studies (10,364 animals) in NAFLD to assess which variables influenced treatment response. Weight loss and alleviation of insulin resistance were consistently associated with improvement in NAFLD. Multiple drug classes that do not affect weight in humans caused weight loss in animals. Other study design variables, such as age of animals and dietary composition, influenced the magnitude of treatment effect. Publication bias may have increased effect estimates by 37-79%. These findings help to explain the challenge of reproducibility and translation within the field of metabolism.
The raw dataset used for analysis, including references to individual studies, are available Figure 1 - Source Data and deposited in the Dryad repository at https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.pzgmsbcgc.R code used for analysis are available in Supplementary Data.Source data files have been provided for Figures 2-8.
Data from: Weight loss, insulin resistance, and study design confound results in a meta-analysis of animal models of fatty liverDryad Digital Repository, 10.5061/dryad.pzgmsbcgc.
- Jake P Mann
- Jake P Mann
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Joel K Elmquist, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, United States
© 2020, Hunter et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Sarcomas comprise approximately 1% of all human malignancies; treatment resistance is one of the major reasons for the poor prognosis of sarcomas. Accumulating evidence suggests that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including miRNAs, long ncRNAs, and circular RNAs, are important molecules involved in the crosstalk between resistance to chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and radiotherapy via various pathways.
We searched the PubMed (MEDLINE) database for articles regarding sarcoma-associated ncRNAs from inception to August 17, 2022. Studies investigating the roles of host-derived miRNAs, long ncRNAs, and circular RNAs in sarcoma were included. Data relating to the roles of ncRNAs in therapeutic regulation and their applicability as biomarkers for predicting the therapeutic response of sarcomas were extracted. Two independent researchers assessed the quality of the studies using the Würzburg Methodological Quality Score (W-MeQS).
Observational studies revealed the ectopic expression of ncRNAs in sarcoma patients who had different responses to antitumor treatments. Experimental studies have confirmed crosstalk between cellular pathways pertinent to chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and radiotherapy resistance. Of the included studies, W-MeQS scores ranged from 3 to 10 (average score = 5.42). Of the 12 articles that investigated ncRNAs as biomarkers, none included a validation cohort. Selective reporting of the sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating curves was common.
Although ncRNAs appear to be good candidates as biomarkers for predicting treatment response and therapeutics for sarcoma, their differential expression across tissues complicates their application. Further research regarding their potential for inhibiting or activating these regulatory molecules to reverse treatment resistance may be useful.
This study’s literature retrieval was supported financially by the 345 Talent Project of Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University (M0949 to Tao Zhang).
At preterm birth, the retina is incompletely vascularized. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is initiated by the postnatal suppression of physiological retinal vascular development that would normally occur in utero. As the neural retina slowly matures, increasing metabolic demand including in the peripheral avascular retina, leads to signals for compensatory but pathological neovascularization. Currently, only late neovascular ROP is treated. ROP could be prevented by promoting normal vascular growth. Early perinatal metabolic dysregulation is a strong but understudied risk factor for ROP and other long-term sequelae of preterm birth. We will discuss the metabolic and oxygen needs of retina, current treatments, and potential interventions to promote normal vessel growth including control of postnatal hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hyperoxia-induced retinal metabolic alterations. Early supplementation of missing nutrients and growth factors and control of supplemental oxygen promotes physiological retinal development. We will discuss the current knowledge gap in retinal metabolism after preterm birth.