Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI) is a major cause of infertility, but its etiology remains poorly understood. Using whole-exome sequencing in a family with 3 cases of POI, we identified the candidate missense variant S167L in HSF2BP, an essential meiotic gene. Functional analysis of the HSF2BP-S167L variant in mouse showed that it behaves as a hypomorphic allele compared to a new loss of function (knock-out) mouse model. Hsf2bpS167L/S167L females show reduced fertility with smaller litter sizes. To obtain mechanistic insights, we identified C19ORF57/BRME1 as a strong interactor and stabilizer of HSF2BP and showed that the BRME1/HSF2BP protein complex co-immunoprecipitates with BRCA2, RAD51, RPA and PALB2. Meiocytes bearing the HSF2BP-S167L variant showed a strongly decreased staining of both HSF2BP and BRME1 at the recombination nodules and a reduced number of the foci formed by the recombinases RAD51/DMC1, thus leading to a lower frequency of crossovers. Our results provide insights into the molecular mechanism of HSF2BP-S167L in human ovarian insufficiency and sub(in)fertility.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Alberto M Pendás
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All the experiments were approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation of the University of Salamanca (USAL) and the Ethics committee of the Spanish Research Council (CSIC) under protocol #00-245. Accordingly, all the mouse protocols used in this work have been approved by the above mentioned Animal Experimentation committees. Specifically, mice were always housed in a temperature-controlled facility (specific pathogen free, spf) using individually ventilated cages, standard diet and a 12 h light/dark cycle, according to EU law (63/2010/UE) and the Spanish royal law (53/2013) at the "Servicio de Experimentación Animal, SEA. In addition, animal suffering was always minimized and we made every effort to improve animal welfare during the life of the animals.
- Bernard de Massy, CNRS UM, France
© 2020, Felipe-Medina et al.
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The ATPase p97 (also known as VCP, Cdc48) has crucial functions in a variety of important cellular processes such as protein quality control, organellar homeostasis, and DNA damage repair, and its de-regulation is linked to neuromuscular diseases and cancer. p97 is tightly controlled by numerous regulatory cofactors, but the full range and function of the p97–cofactor network is unknown. Here, we identify the hitherto uncharacterized FAM104 proteins as a conserved family of p97 interactors. The two human family members VCP nuclear cofactor family member 1 and 2 (VCF1/2) bind p97 directly via a novel, alpha-helical motif and associate with p97-UFD1-NPL4 and p97-UBXN2B complexes in cells. VCF1/2 localize to the nucleus and promote the nuclear import of p97. Loss of VCF1/2 results in reduced nuclear p97 levels, slow growth, and hypersensitivity to chemical inhibition of p97 in the absence and presence of DNA damage, suggesting that FAM104 proteins are critical regulators of nuclear p97 functions.
The amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques found in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients’ brains contain collagens and are embedded extracellularly. Several collagens have been proposed to influence Aβ aggregate formation, yet their role in clearance is unknown. To investigate the potential role of collagens in forming and clearance of extracellular aggregates in vivo, we created a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain that expresses and secretes human Aβ1-42. This secreted Aβ forms aggregates in two distinct places within the extracellular matrix. In a screen for extracellular human Aβ aggregation regulators, we identified different collagens to ameliorate or potentiate Aβ aggregation. We show that a disintegrin and metalloprotease a disintegrin and metalloprotease 2 (ADM-2), an ortholog of ADAM9, reduces the load of extracellular Aβ aggregates. ADM-2 is required and sufficient to remove the extracellular Aβ aggregates. Thus, we provide in vivo evidence of collagens essential for aggregate formation and metalloprotease participating in extracellular Aβ aggregate removal.