Mutations in KCNC3, which encodes the Kv3.3 K+ channel, cause spinocerebellar ataxia 13 (SCA13). SCA13 exists in distinct forms with onset in infancy or adulthood. Using zebrafish, we tested the hypothesis that infant- and adult-onset mutations differentially affect the excitability and viability of Purkinje cells in vivo during cerebellar development. An infant-onset mutation dramatically and transiently increased Purkinje cell excitability, stunted process extension, impaired dendritic branching and synaptogenesis, and caused rapid cell death during cerebellar development. Reducing excitability increased early Purkinje cell survival. In contrast, an adult-onset mutation did not significantly alter basal tonic firing in Purkinje cells, but reduced excitability during evoked high frequency spiking. Purkinje cells expressing the adult-onset mutation matured normally and did not degenerate during cerebellar development. Our results suggest that differential changes in the excitability of cerebellar neurons contribute to the distinct ages of onset and timing of cerebellar degeneration in infant- and adult-onset SCA13.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in the manuscript and supporting files.
- Diane M Papazian
- Fadi A Issa
- Diane M Papazian
- Jui-Yi Hsieh
- Brittany N Ulrich
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: This study was performed in strict accordance with the recommendations in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the National Institutes of Health. All of the animals were handled according to approved institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) protocols of the University of California, Los Angeles. The protocols were approved by the Chancellor's Animal Research Committee (#2005-176 and #1991-329). All surgery was performed under MS-222 anesthesia, and every effort was made to minimize suffering.
- Julie A Kauer, Stanford University, United States
© 2020, Hsieh et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
The process of brain folding is thought to play an important role in the development and organisation of the cerebrum and the cerebellum. The study of cerebellar folding is challenging due to the small size and abundance of its folia. In consequence, little is known about its anatomical diversity and evolution. We constituted an open collection of histological data from 56 mammalian species and manually segmented the cerebrum and the cerebellum. We developed methods to measure the geometry of cerebellar folia and to estimate the thickness of the molecular layer. We used phylogenetic comparative methods to study the diversity and evolution of cerebellar folding and its relationship with the anatomy of the cerebrum. Our results show that the evolution of cerebellar and cerebral anatomy follows a stabilising selection process. We observed 2 groups of phenotypes changing concertedly through evolution: a group of 'diverse' phenotypes - varying over several orders of magnitude together with body size, and a group of 'stable' phenotypes varying over less than 1 order of magnitude across species. Our analyses confirmed the strong correlation between cerebral and cerebellar volumes across species, and showed in addition that large cerebella are disproportionately more folded than smaller ones. Compared with the extreme variations in cerebellar surface area, folial anatomy and molecular layer thickness varied only slightly, showing a much smaller increase in the larger cerebella. We discuss how these findings could provide new insights into the diversity and evolution of cerebellar folding, the mechanisms of cerebellar and cerebral folding, and their potential influence on the organisation of the brain across species.
Consumption of food and water is tightly regulated by the nervous system to maintain internal nutrient homeostasis. Although generally considered independently, interactions between hunger and thirst drives are important to coordinate competing needs. In Drosophila, four neurons called the interoceptive subesophageal zone neurons (ISNs) respond to intrinsic hunger and thirst signals to oppositely regulate sucrose and water ingestion. Here, we investigate the neural circuit downstream of the ISNs to examine how ingestion is regulated based on internal needs. Utilizing the recently available fly brain connectome, we find that the ISNs synapse with a novel cell-type bilateral T-shaped neuron (BiT) that projects to neuroendocrine centers. In vivo neural manipulations revealed that BiT oppositely regulates sugar and water ingestion. Neuroendocrine cells downstream of ISNs include several peptide-releasing and peptide-sensing neurons, including insulin producing cells (IPCs), crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) neurons, and CCHamide-2 receptor isoform RA (CCHa2R-RA) neurons. These neurons contribute differentially to ingestion of sugar and water, with IPCs and CCAP neurons oppositely regulating sugar and water ingestion, and CCHa2R-RA neurons modulating only water ingestion. Thus, the decision to consume sugar or water occurs via regulation of a broad peptidergic network that integrates internal signals of nutritional state to generate nutrient-specific ingestion.