(A) Charlotte two in. 45 degree PVC Wye joint (Model # PVC 00600 1000) was cut at 22.5 degree angle (following the seam) using a chop saw, resulting in a bilaterally symmetrical Y shape. Maze dimensions were 55 mm base diameter, 105 mm total height, bifurcation at 65 mm height, 95 mm overall width at bifurcation point, each arm measured 60 mm diameter by 40 mm length, as per the original study. This maze is attached to the pot 1–2 days after emergence of the seedling from the soil surface. Critically, the attachment of the maze is done before condition and orientation (left vs right) is assigned to prevent bias. (B) Finished Y maze attached to pot. Attachment is achieved via circumferential black tape (to prevent light leakage) with additional longer strips as needed to straighten maze as much as possible. Pot is of dimensions 5 cm diameter at top, 4 cm diameter at bottom, 6 cm height and has one central hole of approximately 2 mm diameter cut into the bottom. (C) Y mazes attached to plants within controlled environment chamber. Each Y maze has two open ends, which have four possible electronic device configurations: N shows nothing, L shows an LED alone, F shows fan alone, and FL shows fan and LED together. These lights and fans were then moved from one maze arm to the other according to the training schedule. LEDs are attached to the lateral aspect of each Y terminus to maximize directionality of light. In these experiments, Y mazes are grouped in sets of 10 which are interconnected by a thin wooden shim which is tightly wedged between the two arms of the Y maze. This stabilizes the mazes from tipping over, a problem that plagued initial attempts.