During brain development, progenitor cells need to balance proliferation and differentiation in order to generate different neurons in the correct numbers and proportions. Currently, the patterns of multipotent progenitor divisions that lead to neurogenic entry and the factors that regulate them are not fully understood. We here use the zebrafish retina to address this gap, exploiting its suitability for quantitative live-imaging. We show that early neurogenic progenitors arise from asymmetric divisions. Notch regulates this asymmetry, as when inhibited, symmetric divisions producing two neurogenic progenitors occur. Surprisingly however, Notch does not act through an apicobasal activity gradient as previously suggested, but through asymmetric inheritance of Sara-positive endosomes. Further, the resulting neurogenic progenitors show cell biological features different from multipotent progenitors, raising the possibility that an intermediate progenitor state exists in the retina. Our study thus reveals new insights into the regulation of proliferative and differentiative events during central nervous system development.
- Caren Norden
- Caren Norden
- Caren Norden
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All animal work in this study was performed in accordance with European Union directive 2010/63/EU, as well as the German Animal Welfare Act.
- Tatjana Piotrowski, Stowers Institute for Medical Research, United States
© 2020, Nerli et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Downloads (link to download the article as PDF)
Download citations (links to download the citations from this article in formats compatible with various reference manager tools)
Open citations (links to open the citations from this article in various online reference manager services)
Islet vascularization is essential for intact islet function and glucose homeostasis. We have previously shown that primary cilia directly regulate insulin secretion. However, it remains unclear whether they are also implicated in islet vascularization. At eight weeks, murine Bbs4-/-islets show significantly lower intra-islet capillary density with enlarged diameters. Transplanted Bbs4-/- islets exhibit delayed re-vascularization and reduced vascular fenestration after engraftment, partially impairing vascular permeability and glucose delivery to β-cells. We identified primary cilia on endothelial cells as the underlying cause of this regulation, via the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A)/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) pathway. In vitro silencing of ciliary genes in endothelial cells disrupts VEGF-A/VEGFR2 internalization and downstream signaling. Consequently, key features of angiogenesis including proliferation and migration are attenuated in human BBS4 silenced endothelial cells. We conclude that endothelial cell primary cilia regulate islet vascularization and vascular barrier function via the VEGF-A/VEGFR2 signaling pathway.
Many adult stem cell communities are maintained by population asymmetry, where stochastic behaviors of multiple individual cells collectively result in a balance between stem cell division and differentiation. We investigated how this is achieved for Drosophila Follicle Stem Cells (FSCs) by spatially-restricted niche signals. FSCs produce transit-amplifying Follicle Cells (FCs) from their posterior face and quiescent Escort Cells (ECs) to their anterior. We show that JAK-STAT pathway activity, which declines from posterior to anterior, dictates the pattern of divisions over the FSC domain, promotes more posterior FSC locations and conversion to FCs, while opposing EC production. Wnt pathway activity declines from the anterior, promotes anterior FSC locations and EC production, and opposes FC production. The pathways combine to define a stem cell domain through concerted effects on FSC differentiation to ECs and FCs at either end of opposing signaling gradients, and impose a pattern of proliferation that matches derivative production.