Canonical transient receptor potential channels (TRPC) are involved in receptor-operated and/or store-operated Ca2+ signaling. Inhibition of TRPCs by small molecules was shown to be promising in treating renal diseases. In cells, the channels are regulated by calmodulin. Molecular details of both calmodulin and drug binding have remained elusive so far. Here we report structures of TRPC4 in complex with three pyridazinone-based inhibitors and calmodulin. The structures reveal that all the inhibitors bind to the same cavity of the voltage-sensing-like domain and allow us to describe how structural changes from the ligand binding site can be transmitted to the central ion-conducting pore of TRPC4. Calmodulin binds to the rib helix of TRPC4, which results in the ordering of a previously disordered region, fixing the channel in its closed conformation. This represents a novel calmodulin-induced regulatory mechanism of canonical TRP channels.
The atomic coordinates and cryo-EM maps for TRPC4DR in complex with inhibitors, calmodulin and for TRPC4DR in LMNG are available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) databases, under the accession numbers PBD 7B0S and EMD-11970 (TRPC4-GFB8438), PBD 7B16 and EMD-11979 (TRPC4-GFB9289); PBD 7B05 and EMD-11957 (TRPC4-GFB8749); PBD 7B1G and EMD-11985 (TRPC4-Calmodulin) and PBD 7B0J and EMD-11968 (TRPC4-apo in LMNG).
- Stefan Raunser
- Georg Nagel
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Leon D Islas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico
© 2020, Vinayagam et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Clamp loaders place circular sliding clamp proteins onto DNA so that clamp-binding partner proteins can synthesize, scan, and repair the genome. DNA with nicks or small single-stranded gaps are common clamp-loading targets in DNA repair, yet these substrates would be sterically blocked given the known mechanism for binding of primer-template DNA. Here, we report the discovery of a second DNA binding site in the yeast clamp loader Replication Factor C (RFC) that aids in binding to nicked or gapped DNA. This DNA binding site is on the external surface and is only accessible in the open conformation of RFC. Initial DNA binding at this site thus provides access to the primary DNA binding site in the central chamber. Furthermore, we identify that this site can partially unwind DNA to create an extended single-stranded gap for DNA binding in RFC's central chamber and subsequent ATPase activation. Finally, we show that deletion of the BRCT domain, a major component of the external DNA binding site, results in defective yeast growth in the presence of DNA damage where nicked or gapped DNA intermediates occur. We propose that RFC’s external DNA binding site acts to enhance DNA binding and clamp loading, particularly at DNA architectures typically found in DNA repair.
Protein folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is regulated by a signaling network, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) is an ER membrane-resident kinase/RNase that mediates signal transmission in the most evolutionarily conserved branch of the UPR. Dimerization and/or higher-order oligomerization of IRE1 are thought to be important for its activation mechanism, yet the actual oligomeric states of inactive, active, and attenuated mammalian IRE1 complexes remain unknown. We developed an automated two-color single-molecule tracking approach to dissect the oligomerization of tagged endogenous human IRE1 in live cells. In contrast to previous models, our data indicate that IRE1 exists as a constitutive homodimer at baseline and assembles into small oligomers upon ER stress. We demonstrate that the formation of inactive dimers and stress-dependent oligomers is fully governed by IRE1’s lumenal domain. Phosphorylation of IRE1’s kinase domain occurs more slowly than oligomerization and is retained after oligomers disassemble back into dimers. Our findings suggest that assembly of IRE1 dimers into larger oligomers specifically enables trans-autophosphorylation, which in turn drives IRE1’s RNase activity.