(i) Distributions of sample proportion estimates for comorbidities identified from healthcare encounters in the year prior to a patient’s first ARD inpatient admission: diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), heart failure (HF), ischemic heart disease (IHD), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), and cancer (CAN). Data distributions for additional covariates within the area of propensity score overlap: age, total weeks with inpatient admissions in the prior year (STAYS12), total outpatient visits in the prior year (VISIT12), total prior days as an inpatient in the prior year (DAYS12), total weeks with prior inpatient stays in the previous two months (STAYS2), and fiscal year (YEAR). (ii) Covariate balance plots before (cyan) and after (red) inverse propensity weighting. (iii) For the outcome of progressing to ventilation and death: (left) number and proportion of patients taking indicated medications who experienced the outcome, (right) relative risk reductions (RRR), odds ratios (OR), confidence intervals (CI), p-values (p), and sample sizes (n) for unadjusted, adjusted, and matched models, including any ⍺1-AR antagonists and specifically tamsulosin. Likewise for the secondary outcome of requiring ventilation. In general, ⍺1-AR antagonists are associated with reducing risk of adverse events across treatments, outcomes, and modeling approaches. The raw outcome count and corresponding RRR for tamsulosin in the ventilation and death outcome are redacted per MarketScan policy for displaying small counts.