In recent years, a wealth of Drosophila neuroscience data have become available including cell type, connectome/synaptome datasets for both the larva and adult fly. To facilitate integration across data modalities and to accelerate the understanding of the functional logic of the fly brain, we have developed FlyBrainLab, a unique open-source computing platform that integrates 3D exploration and visualization of diverse datasets with interactive exploration of the functional logic of modeled executable brain circuits. FlyBrainLab's User Interface, Utilities Libraries and Circuit Libraries bring together neuroanatomical, neurogenetic and electrophysiological datasets with computational models of different researchers for validation and comparison within the same platform. Seeking to transcend the limitations of the connectome/synaptome, FlyBrainLab also provides libraries for molecular transduction arising in sensory coding in vision/olfaction. Together with sensory neuron activity data, these libraries serve as entry points for the exploration, analysis, comparison and evaluation of circuit functions of the fruit fly brain.
Code Availability and InstallationStable and tested FlyBrainLab installation instructions for user-side components and utility libraries are available at https://github.com/FlyBrainLab/FlyBrainLab for Linux, MacOS and Windows. The installation and use of FlyBrainLab does not require a GPU, but a service-side backend must be running, for example, on a cloud service, that the user-side of FlyBrainLab can connect to. By default, the user-side-only installation will access the backend services hosted on our public servers. Note that users do not have write permission to the NeuroArch Database, nor will they be able to access a Neurokernel Server for execution. The server-side backend codebase is publicly available at https://github.com/fruitflybrain and https://github.com/neurokernel.A full installation of FlyBrainLab, including all backend and frontend components, is available as a Docker image at https://hub.docker.com/r/fruitflybrain/fbl. The image requires a Linux host with at least 1 CUDA-enabled GPU and the nvidia-docker package (https://github.com/NVIDIA/nvidia-docker) installed. For a custom installation of the complete FlyBrainLab platform, a shell script is available at https://github.com/FlyBrainLab/FlyBrainLab.To help users get started, a number of tutorials are available written as Jupyter notebooks at https://github.com/FlyBrainLab/Tutorials, including a reference to English queries at https://github.com/FlyBrainLab/Tutorials/blob/master/tutorials/getting_started/1b_nlp_queries.ipynb. An overview of the FlyBrainLab resources is available at https://github.com/FlyBrainLab/FlyBrainLab/wiki/FlyBrainLab-Resources.Data AvailabilityThe NeuroArch Database created from publicly available FlyCircuit, Hemibrain and Larva L1EM datasets can be downloaded from https://github.com/FlyBrainLab/dataset. The same repository provides Jupyter notebooks for loading publicly available datasets, such as the FlyCircuit dataset with inferred connectivity, the Hemibrain dataset and the Larva L1 EM dataset, into the NeuroArch Database.
- Mehmet Kerem Turkcan
- Aurel A Lazar
- Tingkai Liu
- Mehmet Kerem Turkcan
- Yiyin Zhou
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
- Upinder Singh Bhalla, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, India
© 2021, Lazar et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) fulfill an important role in communication and navigation in many species. Because of their social and affective significance, rodent USVs are increasingly used as a behavioral measure in neurodevelopmental and neurolinguistic research. Reliably attributing USVs to their emitter during close interactions has emerged as a difficult, key challenge. If addressed, all subsequent analyses gain substantial confidence. We present a hybrid ultrasonic tracking system, Hybrid Vocalization Localizer (HyVL), that synergistically integrates a high-resolution acoustic camera with high-quality ultrasonic microphones. HyVL is the first to achieve millimeter precision (~3.4–4.8 mm, 91% assigned) in localizing USVs, ~3× better than other systems, approaching the physical limits (mouse snout ~10 mm). We analyze mouse courtship interactions and demonstrate that males and females vocalize in starkly different relative spatial positions, and that the fraction of female vocalizations has likely been overestimated previously due to imprecise localization. Further, we find that when two male mice interact with one female, one of the males takes a dominant role in the interaction both in terms of the vocalization rate and the location relative to the female. HyVL substantially improves the precision with which social communication between rodents can be studied. It is also affordable, open-source, easy to set up, can be integrated with existing setups, and reduces the required number of experiments and animals.
How does the human brain combine information across the eyes? It has been known for many years that cortical normalization mechanisms implement ‘ocularity invariance’: equalizing neural responses to spatial patterns presented either monocularly or binocularly. Here, we used a novel combination of electrophysiology, psychophysics, pupillometry, and computational modeling to ask whether this invariance also holds for flickering luminance stimuli with no spatial contrast. We find dramatic violations of ocularity invariance for these stimuli, both in the cortex and also in the subcortical pathways that govern pupil diameter. Specifically, we find substantial binocular facilitation in both pathways with the effect being strongest in the cortex. Near-linear binocular additivity (instead of ocularity invariance) was also found using a perceptual luminance matching task. Ocularity invariance is, therefore, not a ubiquitous feature of visual processing, and the brain appears to repurpose a generic normalization algorithm for different visual functions by adjusting the amount of interocular suppression.