Background: Obesity is widespread and linked to various co-morbidities. Bariatric surgery has been identified as the only effective treatment, promoting sustained weight loss and the remission of co-morbidities.
Methods: Metabolic profiling was performed on diet induced obese (DIO) mice, lean mice and DIO mice that underwent sleeve gastrectomies. In addition, mice were subjected to i.p. injections with TDCA and valine. Indirect calorimetry was performed to assess food intake and energy expenditure. Expression of appetite regulating hormones was assessed through quantification of isolated RNA from dissected hypothalamus tissue. Subsequently, i.p. injections with an MCH antagonist and intrathecal administration of melanin-concentrating hormone were performed and weight loss was monitored.
Results: Mass-spectrometric metabolomic profiling revealed significantly reduced systemic levels of TDCA and L-valine in DIO mice. TDCA and L-Valine levels were restored after sleeve gastrectomies (SGx) in both human and mice to levels comparable with lean controls. Systemic treatment with TDCA and valine induced a profound weight loss analogous to effects observed after SGx. Utilizing indirect calorimetry, we confirmed reduced food intake as causal for TDCA/valine-mediated weight loss via a central inhibition of the melanin-concentrating hormone.
Conclusions: In summary, we identified restored TDCA/valine levels as an underlying mechanism of SGx-derived effects on weight loss. Of translational relevance, TDCA and L-valine are presented as novel agents promoting weight loss while reversing obesity-associated metabolic disorders.
All relevant data supporting the findings of this study are available as source data files.
- Stefan G Tullius
- Markus Quante
- Timm Heinbokel
- Felix Krenzien
- Yeqi Nian
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: Animal use and care were in accordance with institutional and National Institutes of Health guidelines. The study protocol was approved by the Brigham and Women´s Hospital Institutional Animal Care and use Committee (IACUC) animal protocol (animal protocol 2016N000371).
Human subjects: Serum samples from patients prior to and 3 months post sleeve gastrectomy were obtained with approval of the Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) Institutional Review Board and through cooperation with Dr. Eric G. Sheu and the Center for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery at BWH. Informed consent was obtained from all patients and samples were collected following BWH ethical regulations.
- Ralph J DeBerardinis, UT Southwestern Medical Center, United States
© 2021, Quante et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
Individuals recently diagnosed with a cardiovascular disease are at higher risk of developing a mental illness, with mortality increasing when both conditions are present.
MicroRNAs (miRNA) and other components contained in extracellular vesicles may reflect the presence of a disease. Lung tissue, sputum, and sera of individuals with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) show alterations in miRNA expression. We designed this study to test whether urine and/or tissue derived exosomal miRNAs from individuals with IPF carry cargo that can promote fibrosis.
Exosomes were isolated from urine (U-IPFexo), lung tissue myofibroblasts (MF-IPFexo), serum from individuals with IPF (n=16) and age/sex-matched controls without lung disease (n=10). We analyzed microRNA expression of isolated exosomes and their in vivo bio-distribution. We investigated the effect on ex vivo skin wound healing and in in vivo mouse lung models.
U-IPFexo or MF-IPFexo expressed miR-let-7d, miR-29a-5p, miR-181b-3p and miR-199a-3p consistent with previous reports of miRNA expression obtained from lung tissue/sera from patients with IPF. In vivo bio-distribution experiments detected bioluminescent exosomes in the lung of normal C57Bl6 mice within 5 min after intravenous infusion, followed by distribution to other organs irrespective of exosome source. Exosomes labeled with gold nanoparticles and imaged by transmission electron microscopy were visualized in alveolar epithelial type I and type II cells. Treatment of human and mouse lung punches obtained from control, non-fibrotic lungs with either U-IPFexo or MF-IPFexo produced a fibrotic phenotype. A fibrotic phenotype was also induced in a human ex vivo skin model and in in vivo lung models.
Our results provide evidence of a systemic feature of IPF whereby exosomes contain pro-fibrotic miRNAs when obtained from a fibrotic source and interfere with response to tissue injury as measured in skin and lung models.
This work was supported in part by Lester and Sue Smith Foundation and The Samrick Family Foundation and NIH grants R21 AG060338 (SE and MKG), U01 DK119085 (IP, RS, MTC).