Black points show values for orphans, and grey points show values for immature gorillas within the same group that did not suffer maternal loss. Error bars indicate the standard error. Dashed red line indicates no change in relationship strength. NS indicates no significant difference between orphan and non-orphan changes in relationship strength, * indicates significance at <0.05, ** indicates significance at <0.01, and *** indicates significance at <0.001. Exact p-values (L to R), contact: <0.001, 0.001, 0.997, 0.280, 0.122, 0.021, 0.941, 0.019; proximity: 0.006, 0.009, 0.004, 0.265, 0.680, <0.001, <0.001, 0.328. Source data available in file: ‘Figure 3—source data 1’. Figure 3—figure supplement 1 shows the change in relationship strength between orphans and group members that were their maternal siblings (dark blue) and those that were not (light blue) after maternal loss based on (A) affiliative contact and (B) proximity. Figure 3—figure supplement 2 shows the change in relationship strength between orphans and dominant and subordinate adult male group members by kinship after maternal loss based on (A) affiliative contact and (B) proximity.