(A) Pulmonary disease-associated genes are enriched in upregulated genes in different cell types from whole lungs of mice exposed to IH vs controls. Enrichment analysis was performed in the DisGenet human database, using the top 200 upregulated genes identified from each cell type. The enrichment ratio is indicated by color. The point size indicates the enrichment BHQ from a Fisher’s exact test. The pulmonary diseases include asthma, allergic asthma, chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD), interstitial lung fibrosis (ILF), pulmonary fibrosis (PF), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), pulmonary hypertension (PH), idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (IPH), and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). (B) The disease-associated genes vary in expression level and percentage of cells that express those genes. The fold change is indicated by the color, and the percentage of cells that express those genes is indicated by the height of the bar. Control and experimental groups are indicated by gray and orange box borders, respectively. (C) Dozens of pulmonary drug targets show differential expression in multiple cell types in lungs from mice exposed to IH. Drug classes used to treat different pulmonary diseases are indicated by text color. Drug effect is indicated by the line type. Fold change is indicated by the point color, and the p-value of differential expression is indicated by the point size. (D) The hive plot shows ligand–receptor interaction changes between pairs of cell types in response to IH. Nodes indicate cell-expressed ligands (horizontal axis) or receptors (vertical axis). Size of nodes are in proportion to the number of interactions changed for the cell type. Width of lines show numbers of interactions gained (right) or lost (left) between the pairs of cell types. The list of cell types include endothelial cells (Endo), B cells (Bcells), natural killer cells (NK), T cells (Tcells), natural killer T cells (NK-T), macrophages (Mphage), basophils (Baso), monocytes (Mono), macrophages-dendritic CD163+ cells (Mphage-DC), dendritic cells (DC), megakaryocytes (MegK), fibroblasts (FB), myofibroblasts (MyoFB), pericytes (Pcyte), alveolar epithelial type I cells (AT1), lymphatic endothelial cells (LymEndo), erythroblasts (Erythro), alveolar epithelial type II cells (AT2), and ciliated cells (Ciliated).