The X-linked gene Rlim plays major roles in female mouse development and reproduction, where it is crucial for the maintenance of imprinted X chromosome inactivation in extraembryonic tissues of embryos. However, while females carrying a systemic Rlim knockout (KO) die around implantation, male Rlim KO mice appear healthy and are fertile. Here we report an important role for Rlim in testis where it is highly expressed in post-meiotic round spermatids as well as in Sertoli cells. Systemic deletion of the Rlim gene results in lower numbers of mature sperm that contains excess cytoplasm, leading to decreased sperm motility and in vitro fertilization rates. Targeting the conditional Rlim cKO specifically to the spermatogenic cell lineage largely recapitulates this phenotype. These results reveal functions of Rlim in male reproduction specifically in round spermatids during spermiogenesis.
RNAseq data have been deposited in GEO under accession code GSE114593.
Analysis of functions of Rlim during reproduction in male miceNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE114593.
RNA-Seq and RNA Polymerase II ChIP-Seq of mouse spermatogenesisNCBI Gene Expression Omnibus, GSE44346.
- Ingolf Bach
- Oliver J Rando
- Pablo E Visconti
The funders had no role in study design, data collection and interpretation, or the decision to submit the work for publication.
Animal experimentation: All mice were housed in the animal facility of UMMS and utilized according to NIH guidelines and those established by the UMMS Institute of Animal Care and Usage Committee (IACUC; protocol #201900344).
- Jeannie T Lee, Massachusetts General Hospital, United States
© 2021, Wang et al.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
In order to understand morphogenesis, it is necessary to know the material properties or forces shaping the living tissue. In spite of this need, very few in vivo measurements are currently available. Here, using the early Drosophila embryo as a model, we describe a novel cantilever-based technique which allows for the simultaneous quantification of applied force and tissue displacement in a living embryo. By analyzing data from a series of experiments in which embryonic epithelium is subjected to developmentally relevant perturbations, we conclude that the response to applied force is adiabatic and is dominated by elastic forces and geometric constraints, or system size effects. Crucially, computational modeling of the experimental data indicated that the apical surface of the epithelium must be softer than the basal surface, a result which we confirmed experimentally. Further, we used the combination of experimental data and comprehensive computational model to estimate the elastic modulus of the apical surface and set a lower bound on the elastic modulus of the basal surface. More generally, our investigations revealed important general features that we believe should be more widely addressed when quantitatively modeling tissue mechanics in any system. Specifically, different compartments of the same cell can have very different mechanical properties; when they do, they can contribute differently to different mechanical stimuli and cannot be merely averaged together. Additionally, tissue geometry can play a substantial role in mechanical response, and cannot be neglected.
The study of color patterns in the animal integument is a fundamental question in biology, with many lepidopteran species being exemplary models in this endeavor due to their relative simplicity and elegance. While significant advances have been made in unraveling the cellular and molecular basis of lepidopteran pigmentary coloration, the morphogenesis of wing scale nanostructures involved in structural color production is not well understood. Contemporary research on this topic largely focuses on a few nymphalid model taxa (e.g., Bicyclus, Heliconius), despite an overwhelming diversity in the hierarchical nanostructural organization of lepidopteran wing scales. Here, we present a time-resolved, comparative developmental study of hierarchical scale nanostructures in Parides eurimedes and five other papilionid species. Our results uphold the putative conserved role of F-actin bundles in acting as spacers between developing ridges, as previously documented in several nymphalid species. Interestingly, while ridges are developing in P. eurimedes, plasma membrane manifests irregular mesh-like crossribs characteristic of Papilionidae, which delineate the accretion of cuticle into rows of planar disks in between ridges. Once the ridges have grown, disintegrating F-actin bundles appear to reorganize into a network that supports the invagination of plasma membrane underlying the disks, subsequently forming an extruded honeycomb lattice. Our results uncover a previously undocumented role for F-actin in the morphogenesis of complex wing scale nanostructures, likely specific to Papilionidae.