(A) Systematic fiber tracking based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging generated a cortex-wide structural connectome, which was subjected to diffusion map embedding. As shown in the scree plot, three eigenvectors (E1, E2, E3) accounted for approximately 50% information of connectome data, and each depicted a different gradual transition across the cortical mantle. (B) Manifold eccentricity measured by Euclidean distance between the template center and each data point. Arrows depict average positional change in connectivity space from baseline to follow-up. The color of each arrow represents each brain region mapped on the surface on the bottom. (C) The histogram represents age distribution of all subjects at baseline and follow-up. The colors on brain surfaces indicate t-statistics of regions showing significant longitudinal changes in manifold eccentricity across age, following multiple comparisons correction with a false discovery rate < 0.05. Datapoint colors in the scatter plot represent t-statistics. Identified regions are represented with arrows that originate from baseline to follow-up. (D) Stratification of age-related changes in manifold eccentricity according to prior models of cortical hierarchy (Mesulam, 1998) and functional magnetic resonance imaging communities (Yeo et al., 2011).