(A) Schematic of increased inhibitory weights onto stimulus-specific assemblies upon the repeated presentation of stimuli A and B (indicated by dark blue and turquoise) relative to neurons from other assemblies (light blue). Both, excitatory and inhibitory neurons were pretuned to different stimulus features (black and gray borders). (B) Population average firing rate of all excitatory neurons as a function of time after the onset of a sequence block. Activity was averaged (solid line) across multiple non-repeated sequence blocks (transparent lines: individual blocks). A novel stimulus was presented as the last stimulus of the second-to-last sequence. (C) Top: Evolution of the average excitatory weights corresponding to all repeated and 10 sample novel stimuli. Colored traces mark three stimulus-specific assemblies in sequence 1: A, B, and C. The legend is shared with bottom panel. Bottom: Same as top panel for the average inhibitory weights. Arrows indicate end points of the pretraining, early, intermediate and late time points and whole stimulation phase. (D) Top, left: Population average firing rate of all excitatory neurons during the repeated presentation of sequence 1 at an early time point (see panel C, bottom). The novelty response can be seen at the end of the stimulation period. Bottom, left: Close-up of panel C, bottom (rectangle). Top, right: Same as panel top, left but at intermediate and late time points (see panel C, bottom). Bottom, right: Corresponding dynamics of the average inhibitory weights onto all three stimulus-specific assemblies from sequence 1 at early, intermediate and late time points (see panel C, bottom). The dark purple trace (early) corresponds to the average of the three colored traces in bottom, left panel. Time is locked to sequence onset. (E) Left: Weight matrix of average excitatory (E–to–E) weights after pretraining (see panel C), sorted by repeated and novel stimuli (repeated and novel stimuli are separated by the black lines). Right: Same as left after the repeated sequence stimulation paradigm (see final in panel C, top). The diagonal elements correspond to the traces plotted in C, top. (F) Left: Weight matrix of stimulus-specific inhibitory (I–to–E) weights after pretraining (see panel C, bottom), sorted by repeated and novel stimuli (repeated and novel stimuli are separated by the black lines). Right: Same as left after the repeated sequence stimulation paradigm (see final in panel C,bottom). .