Symmetry breaking meets multisite modification
Multisite modification is a basic way of conferring functionality to proteins, and a key component of post-translational modification networks. Additional interest in multisite modification stems from its capability of acting as complex information processors. In this paper we connect two seemingly disparate themes: symmetry and multisite modification. We examine different classes of random modification networks of substrates involving separate or common enzymes. We demonstrate that under different instances of symmetry of the modification network (invoked explicitly or implicitly and discussed in the literature), the biochemistry of multisite modification can lead to the symmetry being broken. This is shown computationally and consolidated analytically, revealing parameter regions where this can (and in fact does) happen, and characteristics of the symmetry broken state. We discuss the relevance of these results in situations where exact symmetry is not present. Overall, through our study we show how symmetry breaking (i) can confer new capabilities to protein networks, including concentration robustness of different combinations of species (in conjunction with multiple steady states) (ii) could have been the basis for ordering of multisite modification, which is widely observed in cells (iii) can significantly impact information processing in multisite modification and in cell signalling networks/pathways where multisite modification is present (iv) can be a fruitful new angle for engineering in synthetic biology and chemistry. All in all, the emerging conceptual synthesis provides a new vantage point for the elucidation and the engineering of molecular systems at the junction of chemical and biological systems.
All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this manuscript and supporting files. Relevant source code is also provided
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The authors declare that no external funding was received for this work
- Olivier Rivoire, College de France, France
- Received: December 1, 2020
- Accepted: May 20, 2021
- Accepted Manuscript published: May 21, 2021 (version 1)
- Version of Record published: September 14, 2021 (version 2)
© 2021, Ramesh & Krishnan
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License permitting unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
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- Physics of Living Systems
Postoperative knee instability is one of the major reasons accounting for unsatisfactory outcomes, as well as a major failure mechanism leading to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) revision. Nevertheless, subjective knee instability is not well defined clinically, plausibly because the relationships between instability and implant kinematics during functional activities of daily living remain unclear. Although muscles play a critical role in supporting the dynamic stability of the knee joint, the influence of joint instability on muscle synergy patterns is poorly understood. Therefore, this study aimed to understand the impact of self-reported joint instability on tibiofemoral kinematics and muscle synergy patterns after TKA during functional gait activities of daily living.
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Our findings suggest that accurate movement analysis is sensitive for detecting acute instability events, but might be less robust in identifying general joint instability. Conversely, muscle synergy patterns seem to be able to identify muscular adaptation associated with underlying chronic knee instability.
This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
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